Recommended Immunizations For Children Ages 11 To 12 Years Old
The immunizations that are recommended at this age are for diseases that teens and young adults are at higher risk for plus one booster dose to strengthen immunity for three diseases. Your childs annual wellness visit or back-to-school checkup is the perfect time to get these vaccines.
An overview of immunizations for kids ages 11 to 12 years old
- Tdap At this age, this immunization is whats commonly referred to as a booster shot because it boosts your childs tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis immunity. While related to the DTaP vaccine kids receive during childhood, this vaccine is formulated for adolescents and adults.
- MenACWY The first of two meningococcal vaccine doses is recommended sometime between 11 years old and 12 years old. This vaccine protects against the most common types of meningococcal bacteria that affect adolescents.
- HPV While in some cases doctors may recommend the human papillomavirus vaccine as early as age 9, this vaccine is routinely recommended to begin between 11 and 12 years old. If the initial vaccination is completed before age 14, just two doses are needed. The second dose should be completed 6 to 12 months after the first dose.
Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Given At 2 Months 4 Months And 12 Months
The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine protects children against invasive pneumococcal infections such as pneumonia, bacteraemia and meningitis .
What is invasive pneumococcal disease ?
IPD is an infection caused by a type of bacteria called streptococcus pneumoniae . This type of bacteria can cause any of the following:
Pneumococcal infection is also a frequent cause of ear infections .
Pneumonia, bacteraemia and meningitis can sometimes cause death or long lasting complications such as deafness, especially in people with a high-risk medical condition.
Sometimes antibiotics do not work against the pneumococcal infection . Antibiotic resistance occurs when drugs, used to treat the infection, are no longer effective in killing or stopping the growth of particular microorganisms, such as pneumococcal bacteria. When there is antibiotic resistance, it is more difficult to treat the infection.
Newborn Treatments & Vaccines
Your newborn will be given medications and vaccines, some of which are required by law. Those that are not required by law are strongly recommended for your babys continued health. To learn more about required medications given after birth to babies .
Antibiotic Eye Ointment
Bacteria in the birth canal can cause newborns to develop eye infections that can result in blindness. To prevent eye infections, your baby will receive an antibiotic eye ointment, as required by New York State law.
Vitamin K Injection
When babies are born, they lack sufficient vitamin K, which is essential for blood clotting.
A vitamin K injection prevents vitamin K deficiency bleeding and is required by New York State law.
Hepatits B Vaccine
Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that damages the liver over time and has no cure. People with lifelong hepatitis B usually do not experience any outward symptoms and may not know that they have the disease.
All newborns should receive the first shot of the hepatitis B vaccine before leaving the hospital. This reduces the risk of getting the disease from mom or family members who do not know that they are affected.
Three to four doses of the vaccine are required:
- The first dose at birth
- A second dose at 1 through 3 months
- A third dose at 6 through 18 months of age
We will ask for your consent to administer a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine. This vaccine is strongly recommended.
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Measles Mumps And Rubella Vaccine
Measles, mumps and rubella vaccine – given at 12 months
The MMR vaccine is a three-in-one needle that protects against measles, mumps and rubella . It should be given to children soon after their first birthday and a second dose at 4-6 years of age with the measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccine.
Immunization against measles, mumps and rubella is required by law for all children attending school in Ontario, unless exempted.
This vaccine should also be given to adults who are not protected against measles, mumps or rubella. Pregnant women who have been told that they are not protected against rubella, should receive MMR vaccine as soon as they are no longer pregnant.
What is measles?
Measles can be a serious infection. It causes high fever, cough, rash, runny nose and watery eyes. Measles lasts for one to two weeks. Ear infections or pneumonia can happen in one out of every 10 children with measles. Measles can also be complicated by encephalitis, an infection of the brain, in about one out of every 1,000 children with measles. This may cause brain damage and developmental delays. Measles can also make a pregnant woman have a miscarriage or give birth prematurely.
Measles spreads from person to person very easily and quickly. People can get measles from an infected person coughing or sneezing around them or simply talking to them.
What is mumps?
What is rubella ?
Your Child’s Vaccination Schedule
Vaccination schedules are carefully studied and designed to give the best possible protection for children against serious diseases.
Canadians should consult with their health care provider or public health authority to determine when they should visit, and learn about the measures that have been put in place to safely deliver immunization services during COVID-19.
Vaccination schedules can vary slightly, depending on the province or territory you live in. This means that some provinces or territories will vaccinate at a different age.
Typically, your child will be vaccinated:
- between birth to 2 months
- at 4 months
- between 12 months and 18 months
- between 4 to 6 years of age
For some of the vaccines, your child will require more than 1 dose at different times. This is needed because for some vaccines, the first dose does not provide as much immunity as possible.
More than 1 dose is needed to build more complete immunity. The DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccine, which protects against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio and Haemophilus influenzae type B, is an example.
In other cases, the initial series of shots that children receive as part of their infant immunizations helps them build immunity. After a while, however, that immunity begins to wear off.
At this point, a “booster” dose is needed to bring immunity levels back up. The MMR vaccine, which protects against measles, mumps and rubella, is a good example.
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Modifying The Immunization Schedule For Inadequately Immunized Infants And Younger Children Before Internationaltravel
Several factors influence recommendations for the age at which a vaccine is administered, including age-specific risks of the disease and its complications, the ability of people of a given age to develop an adequate immune response to the vaccine, and potential interference with the immune response by passively transferred maternal antibodies.
The immunization schedules for infants and children in the United States do not provide specific guidelines for those traveling internationally before the age when specific vaccines are routinely recommended. Recommended age limitations are based on potential adverse events , lack of efficacy data or inadequate immune response , maternal antibody interference and immaturity of the immune system , or lack of safety data. In deciding when to travel with a young infant or child, parents should be advised that the earliest opportunity to receive routinely recommended immunizations in the United States is at age 6 weeks. In general, live-virus vaccines should be administered on the same day or spaced 28 daysapart.
Routine Infant and Childhood Vaccinations
Rotavirus vaccine is unique among the routine vaccines given to US infants because it has maximum ages for the first and last doses specific consideration should be given to the timing of an infants travel so that the infant will still be able to receive the vaccine series, if at all possible.
Travel-specific vaccine considerations include the following:
How Long Vaccines Take To Work
It usually takes a few weeks for vaccines to work. Your child will not be protected immediately.
Also, most vaccines need to be given several times to build up long-lasting protection. For example, a child who gets only 1 or 2 doses of the whooping cough vaccine is only partly protected. They may still catch whooping cough if the course is not completed.
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Diphtheria Tetanus And Pertussis Vaccination
- 5-dose series at 2, 4, 6, 1518 months, 46 years
- Prospectively: Dose 4 may be administered as early as age 12 months if at least 6 months have elapsed since dose 3.
- Retrospectively: A 4th dose that was inadvertently administered as early as age 12 months may be counted if at least 4 months have elapsed since dose 3.
- Dose 5 is not necessary if dose 4 was administered at age 4 years or older and at least 6 months after dose 3.
- For other catch-up guidance, see Table 2.
- Wound management in children less than age 7 years with history of 3 or more doses of tetanus-toxoid-containing vaccine: For all wounds except clean and minor wounds, administer DTaP if more than 5 years since last dose of tetanus-toxoid-containing vaccine. For detailed information, see www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/rr/rr6702a1.htm.
How Does Immunisation Work
Immunisation is a simple, safe and effective way to protect children against certain diseases. The serious health risks of these diseases are far greater than the very small risks of immunisation.
Immunisation protects children against harmful infections before they come into contact with them in the community.
It uses the bodys natural defence mechanism the immune system to build resistance to specific infections. Generally it takes about 2 weeks after vaccination for the immune system to respond fully.
Vaccination is the term used for getting a vaccine that is, getting the injection or taking an oral vaccine dose. Immunisation refers to the process of both getting the vaccine and becoming immune to the disease after vaccination.
Learn more about the difference between vaccination and immunisation.
Vaccines for babies and young children are funded under the Department of Health’s National Immunisation Program.
In Australia, babies and children are immunised against the following diseases:
The hepatitis A vaccine is free for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children living in high-risk areas .
Children aged 6 months to under 5 years can have the flu vaccine for free each year. It is available in autumn. Children aged 12 to 13 should be vaccinated against human papillomavirus through their schools.
Most vaccines recommended in the program are given by injection. Some combine several vaccines in the one injection.
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Meningococcal Serogroup B Vaccination
- Adolescents not at increased risk age 1623 years based on shared clinical decision-making:
- Bexsero: 2-dose series at least 1 month apart
- Trumenba: 2-dose series at least 6 months apart if dose 2 is administered earlier than 6 months, administer a 3rd dose at least 4 months after dose 2.
Anatomic or functional asplenia , persistent complement component deficiency, complement inhibitor use:
- Bexsero: 2-dose series at least 1 month apart
- Trumenba: 3-dose series at 0, 12, 6 months
Bexsero and Trumenba are not interchangeable the same product should be used for all doses in a series. For MenB booster dose recommendations for groups listed under Special situations and in an outbreak setting and additional meningococcal vaccination information, see .
Recommended Immunizations For Children Ages 0 To 18 Months
When do babies get their first shots? Staying on track with childhood immunizations starts early, with immunizations beginning at birth and coinciding with baby and child wellness schedules.
Remember, child vaccination schedules are made with young immune systems in mind. If you have specific questions about when or why specific vaccines are recommended for your newborn baby, infant or toddler, talk with your childs doctor.
An overview of immunizations for newborns to 18-month-olds
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Importance Of Vaccines For Infant And Toddlers
For newborns, breast milk can help protect against many diseases. However, this immunity wears off after breastfeeding is over, and some children arent breastfed at all.
Whether or not children are breastfed, vaccines can help protect them from disease. Vaccines can also help prevent the spread of disease through the rest of the population through herd immunity.
Vaccines work by imitating infection of a certain disease in your childs body. This prompts your childs immune system to develop weapons called antibodies.
These antibodies fight the disease that the vaccine is meant to prevent. With their body now primed to make antibodies, your childs immune system can defeat future infection from the disease. Its an amazing feat.
Which Vaccines Do You Recommend During Pregnancy
I recommend two vaccines for pregnant parents: The first is the flu vaccine, and the second is pertussis .
The flu vaccine should be given to expecting parents as soon possible .
The antibodies generated by the flu shot will also circulate to the baby during pregnancy and protect the baby in early life. This is really important since the baby cant get the flu shot before they are 6 months old, and we dont have very effective treatments to care for those babies who become very ill with the flu.
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Diphtheria Tetanus And Pertussis
These vaccines have been given in combination since the late 1940s. The version used for babies is referred to as DTaP. It made sense to put these vaccines together, reducing three shots to one, because they are made in the same way, and they protect against these diseases in a similar way.
Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis are each caused by bacteria that make people sick by producing harmful proteins, called toxins. These toxins act like poisons, causing illness. By using inactivated toxins, called toxoids, as the vaccine, people develop antibodies that protect them if they are infected.
Of these three diseases, a baby is most likely to be exposed to pertussis, and pertussis is also the most dangerous because it causes a narrowing of the windpipes that makes it difficult for babies to get enough oxygen when they experience repeated bouts of coughing. Pertussis tends to be under-diagnosed in older children and adults, who frequently transmit it to babies. Unfortunately, of these three vaccines, pertussis is also the one that is least effective. Nonetheless, those immunized with pertussis vaccine are seven times less likely to be infected during an outbreak than those who arent immunized.
Recommended Immunizations For Children Ages 4 To 6 Years Old
The shots recommended between ages 4 and 6 are often called kindergarten vaccines because kids are often required to be up to date on their immunizations to start attending elementary school. No new vaccines are introduced at this time, but oftentimes vaccines are given as combinations.
For example, DTap and IPV can be given in a single shot. MMR and varicella vaccines can also be combined into a single immunization. These vaccines are just as effective when given together, and it cuts down on the number of shots kids need.
An overview of immunizations for kids ages 4 to 6 years old
- DTaP The fifth and final diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccine is recommended when your child is between 4 and 6 years old.
- IPV The fourth and final poliovirus vaccine is recommended when your child is between 4 and 6 years old.
- MMR The second and final dose of the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine is also recommended when your child is between 4 and 6 years old.
- Varicella The second and final dose of the chickenpox vaccine is also recommended when your child is between 4 and 6 years old.
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