Measles Mumps And Rubella Vaccination
- 2-dose series at 1215 months, 46 years
- Dose 2 may be administered as early as 4 weeks after dose 1.
- Unvaccinated children and adolescents: 2-dose series at least 4 weeks apart
- The maximum age for use of MMRV is 12 years.
- Infants age 611 months: 1 dose before departure revaccinate with 2-dose series at age 1215 months and dose 2 as early as 4 weeks later.
- Unvaccinated children age 12 months or older: 2-dose series at least 4 weeks apart before departure
How Do Vaccines Work
The dead or weakened germs in vaccines help your child’s immune system to make two important tools: antibodies and immune memory. Together, these tools will help your child recognize and fight off the germs if exposed to them in the future.
Most children are fully protected after they are vaccinated. This means that they will never get serious vaccine-preventable diseases.
In rare cases, children who are vaccinated can still get the disease because they only get partial protection from the vaccine. This is more common in children with a health problem that affects their immune system. They may develop mild symptoms if they are exposed to a disease, but will not suffer serious complications.
It’s just like… seatbelts are not 100% effective at protecting you while driving, but they significantly reduce your risk of being injured.
Why Do Newborns Need A Vitamin K Shot
I’m pregnant with my first child, and my OB told me that my baby will get a shot of vitamin K right away. Is this really necessary? Nina
Yes, health experts recommend that all newborns get a dose of vitamin K at birth. Babies aren’t born with enough of this important vitamin, which is needed for blood to clot normally.
Babies who don’t get vitamin K at birth are at risk for a potentially fatal bleeding disorder called vitamin K deficient bleeding . VKDB can cause bruising or bleeding in nearly every organ of the body. Almost half of VKDB cases involve bleeding in the brain and brain damage.
Babies are at risk for VKDB for the first 6 months of life. That’s because most of the vitamin K the body makes comes from the foods we eat and the healthy bacteria in our intestines. Until they start eating solid food at about 6 months of age, babies don’t have enough naturally produced vitamin K. And nursing moms don’t pass enough vitamin K in their breast milk to protect their babies from VKDB.
Why, then, do some parents delay or refuse their newborn’s vitamin K injection? A study in the early 1990s suggested a link between the vitamin K shot and childhood cancer. Many studies since then have found no connection between vitamin K and cancer. But that misinformation is still readily available online. As a result, some families are delaying or skipping the shot, or looking for other ways for their infants to receive vitamin K.
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When Can Babies Get The Flu Shot
Babies younger than 6 months can’t receive the flu vaccine because their immune systems aren’t strong enough yet. Those older than 6 months should get the flu shot every season to prevent health complications and spreading the illness to others.
So when is the best time to get it? Because flu season strengthens in the fall and winterand because it takes two to four weeks to build effectivenessthe CDC recommends getting the flu vaccine by the end of October. However, getting the vaccine later still protects against the illness.
What Are Vaccinations And Why Does Your Baby Need Them
A vaccination is a shot that contains a vaccine. A vaccine is a medicine that helps protect your baby from certain diseases.
You may wonder why your baby needs vaccinations for diseases that youve never heard of. You may not know anyone whos ever had a disease like polio or diphtheria. Many diseases that vaccinations help prevent once infected and killed many children in this country. Because of vaccinations, most people in this country dont get these diseases any more. Vaccinations help protect your baby from diseases and help prevent him from spreading diseases to others.
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Measles Mumps Rubella And Varicella Vaccine
The Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care recently introduced a new measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccine to the Publicly Funded Immunization Schedules for Ontario.
Immunization against measles, mumps and rubella is required by law for all children attending school in Ontario, unless exempted. Immunization against varicella is also required for children born in 2010 or later.
What is measles?
Measles can be a serious infection. It causes high fever, cough, rash, runny nose and watery eyes. Measles lasts for one to two weeks. Ear infections or pneumonia can happen in one out of every 10 children with measles. Measles can also be complicated by encephalitis, an infection of the brain, in about one out of every 1,000 children with measles. This may cause brain damage and developmental delays. Measles can also make a pregnant woman have a miscarriage or give birth prematurely.
Measles spreads from person to person very easily and quickly. People can get measles from an infected person coughing or sneezing around them or simply talking to them.
What is mumps?
Mumps can cause very painful, swollen testicles in about one out of four teenage boys or adult men, and painful infection of the ovaries in one out of 20 women. Mumps infection during the first three months of pregnancy may increase the risk of miscarriage. Mumps can cause deafness in some people.
What is rubella ?
What is varicella ?
If People Hardly Ever Get These Diseases Why Does My Child Need To Be Vaccinated
Diseases that were once common in childhood are now rare in Canada because of vaccines. But they still exist. Even one case of measles can spread quickly when people are not vaccinated. You can still catch measles one hour after an infected person has left the same room. It is not easy to tell who is carrying the germ, or if your child has been exposed.
Many vaccine-preventable diseases have no treatment or cure. In some cases, children can die from complications of a disease.
The best protection is to keep vaccinating.
To better explain the importance of vaccination, here is an analogy: It’s just like when we started bailing out a boat that had a slow leak the boat was full of water . We have been bailing fast and hard, and now the boat is almost dry. If we stop bailing the water will continue to come in as there is still a leak .
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Meningococcal Serogroup B Vaccination
- Adolescents not at increased risk age 1623 years based on shared clinical decision-making:
- Bexsero: 2-dose series at least 1 month apart
- Trumenba: 2-dose series at least 6 months apart if dose 2 is administered earlier than 6 months, administer a 3rd dose at least 4 months after dose 2.
Anatomic or functional asplenia , persistent complement component deficiency, complement inhibitor use:
- Bexsero: 2-dose series at least 1 month apart
- Trumenba: 3-dose series at 0, 12, 6 months
Bexsero and Trumenba are not interchangeable the same product should be used for all doses in a series. For MenB booster dose recommendations for groups listed under Special situations and in an outbreak setting and additional meningococcal vaccination information, see .
Texas Newborn Screening Program
Often referred to as the heelstick because blood is taken from the babys heel, these panels screen for diseases that range from common, such as sickle cell or cystic fibrosis, to much less common, such as phenylketonuria or congenital hypothyroidism. As of 2015, Texas program includes 53 diseases on its panel.
The first test is performed 24 to 48 hours after birth, and a second at one to two weeks at the pediatric care providers office. As with any screen, the goal is to find as many babies at risk as possible. When we detect these conditions early, it allows us to provide appropriate medical care such as altering the diet or providing medicine.
Its important to keep in mind that a positive screen will need to be confirmed with more specific testing.
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Is The Flu Vaccine Safe
Although the flu shot for babies can reduce the risk of many health complications, some parents worry about thimerosal in vaccines. This mercury-based preservative has previously been linked to autism in young children. In actuality, study after study continues to disprove any link between thimerosal in vaccines and autism in children. Plus, only the flu vaccines packaged in multi-dose vials contain thimerosal nowadays, and parents can always ask for thimerosal-free alternatives.
Research shows that the risks associated with a baby contracting the flu are far worse than any side effects that may occur as a result of the shot. “Hundreds of millions of Americans have safely received flu vaccines over the past 50 years, and there has been extensive research supporting the safety of flu vaccines,” says the CDC.
Which Vaccines Do You Recommend For Patients Planning On Starting A Family
First, aspiring parents should be up-to-date on all their childhood vaccines.
Rubella is one of the most important for a mother who wishes to become pregnant, because congenital rubella infection can cause many problems with a growing baby. This vaccine should be given before getting pregnant, as it is a live-virus vaccine and shouldnt be given to pregnant women.
“The antibodies generated by the flu shot will also circulate to the baby during pregnancy and protect the baby in early life.”
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Do Vaccinations Have Risks Or Side Effects
Like any medicine, vaccinations can cause side effects. A side effect is an effect of a drug or treatment that is not the intended result. For example, a side effect of some cold medicines is that they make you sleepy. Most of the time, side effects from vaccinations are mild, go away on their own and last only a few days. Most side effects are a good sign that your babys immune system is building up protection against the disease he was vaccinated against. Your babys immune system helps protect him from infection.
Ask your babys provider about possible side effects of vaccinations, including:
- Low fever
- Redness, swelling or soreness at the spot where your baby got the shot
Severe allergic reactions to vaccines are rare. An allergic reaction is a reaction to something you touch, eat or breathe in. About 1 in 1 million doses of vaccines causes a severe allergic reaction. A severe allergic reaction happens within minutes or a few hours of the vaccination. If your baby has signs of a severe allergic reaction or a reaction that you think is an emergency, call 911. Signs of a severe allergic reaction include:
- Breathing problems
- Swelling of the throat and face
- Hives. These are red bumps on your skin that sometimes itch.
- Fever, sleepiness and not wanting to eat
- Weakness, dizziness and fast heartbeat
Haemophilus Influenzae Type B And Pneumococcus
Although these vaccines are not given together, both protect against bacteria that can make children younger than 2 years of age very sick with meningitis , pneumonia, or bloodstream infections. Young babies have a limited ability to make antibody responses to bacteria like Haemophilus influenzae type b , pneumococcus, and meningococcus.
Hib and pneumococcus were the most frequent causes of severe illness in young children before vaccines were available. Because of the limitations of making an immune response against them, vaccine technology had to be developed that could overcome this. Researchers found a solution by adding a harmless protein, called a conjugate protein, to the parts of the bacteria that cause disease. Healthcare providers were ecstatic when they had a way to protect babies from the illnesses caused by these two diseases.
Because meningococcus does not occur as frequently, only babies considered to be at highest risk typically receive a meningococcal vaccine in infancy.
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Tetanus And Diphtheria Vaccine
Td is a two-in-one vaccine. It protects people against tetanus and diphtheria. The National Advisory Committee on Immunization strongly recommends that all Canadians receive a primary immunizing course of tetanus toxoid in childhood followed by routine booster doses every 10 years.
The Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care recently introduced one lifetime dose of the pertussis vaccine for adults to the Publicly Funded Immunization Schedules for Ontario. All adults 19 to 64 years of age, who have never received the Tdap vaccine in adolescence, are now eligible to receive one lifetime dose of the vaccine. This lifetime dose replaces one of the Td booster doses given every 10 years.
Parents, grandparents or other adult household contacts of newborns, infants and young children as well as health care workers are considered a priority to receive the Tdap vaccine.
What is tetanus?
Tetanus or lockjaw is a serious disease that can happen if dirt with the tetanus germ gets into a cut in the skin. Tetanus germs are found everywhere, usually in soil, dust and manure. It does not spread from person to person. Tetanus causes cramping of the muscles in the neck, arms, leg and stomach, and painful convulsions which can be severe enough to break bones. Even with early treatment, tetanus kills two out of every 10 people who get it.
What is diphtheria?
What Happens After The Immunization
Your child might have a fever, soreness, and some swelling and redness at the injection area. Check with your doctor to see if you can give either acetaminophen or ibuprofen for pain or fever and to find out the right dose.
A warm, damp cloth or a heating pad on the injection site may help reduce soreness, as can moving or using the arm.
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Diphtheria Tetanus And Pertussis
These vaccines have been given in combination since the late 1940s. The version used for babies is referred to as DTaP. It made sense to put these vaccines together, reducing three shots to one, because they are made in the same way, and they protect against these diseases in a similar way.
Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis are each caused by bacteria that make people sick by producing harmful proteins, called toxins. These toxins act like poisons, causing illness. By using inactivated toxins, called toxoids, as the vaccine, people develop antibodies that protect them if they are infected.
Of these three diseases, a baby is most likely to be exposed to pertussis, and pertussis is also the most dangerous because it causes a narrowing of the windpipes that makes it difficult for babies to get enough oxygen when they experience repeated bouts of coughing. Pertussis tends to be under-diagnosed in older children and adults, who frequently transmit it to babies. Unfortunately, of these three vaccines, pertussis is also the one that is least effective. Nonetheless, those immunized with pertussis vaccine are seven times less likely to be infected during an outbreak than those who arent immunized.