The Flu Shot: An Annual Immunization For Children Starting At 6 Months Old
The flu vaccine or influenza vaccine may be the most well-known of all immunizations. Thats because its one of the longest-running vaccines in the United States, with the first of its kind being approved for widespread use in 1945.
While influenza viruses circulate year-round, flu cases peak in the fall and winter months nearly every year. Flu shots help protect against the types of influenza viruses that research indicates will be most common that season. Thats why the CDC recommends annual flu shots for everyone by the end of October including kids 6 months and older.
When children receive their first flu shot, the vaccine is delivered in two doses, given at least one month apart. After that first pair of doses, just one shot is needed each year.
Immunisations At 1 Year Of Age
Your child will need the combined Hib/MenC vaccine, PCV, and the MenB vaccine at 1 year of age to boost their protection against Haemophilus influenzae type b, meningococcal B and pneumococcal infections. These vaccines will help to protect your child through early childhood.
Your child will also have their first dose of MMR and MenC vaccine at this time to protect against measles, mumps and rubella and meningococcal C. Your child will need a second dose of MMR vaccine before starting school.
Persons With Inadequate Immunization Records
Evidence of long term protection against HB has only been demonstrated in individuals who have been vaccinated according to a recommended immunization schedule. Independent of their anti-HBs titres, children and adults lacking adequate documentation of immunization should be considered susceptible and started on an immunization schedule appropriate for their age and risk factors. Refer to Immunization of Persons with Inadequate Immunization Records in Part 3 for additional information.
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If Your Child Can’t Be Vaccinated
Some children may not be able to get some vaccines, including those with:
- specific medical conditions
- severe allergic reactions to vaccine ingredients
Examples include children who need to take high-dose steroids or who have a weakened immune system from cancer treatment . These children may need to avoid vaccines that contain a weakened live virus, such as measles, mumps, rubella and chickenpox.
These children are at risk of getting the disease that the vaccine would have prevented.
Talk to your health care provider or local public health authority if you have any concerns about your child’s health status and vaccines.
If your child can’t be vaccinated, you can help protect them by encouraging others to get vaccinated. This will help prevent the spread of disease to your child.
Why Is It Important To Stick To The Vaccine Schedule
Its important to stick to the vaccine schedule because those schedules have been developed by scientists and experts who have looked at the best timing to receive a vaccine and what diseases a child is vulnerable to.
In certain countries, for instance, some diseases are more common and so a child will receive those vaccines earlier in their life, so sticking with that schedule is providing your children the protection they need from the diseases that theyre most likely to encounter.
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Recommended Immunizations For Children Ages 4 To 6 Years Old
The shots recommended between ages 4 and 6 are often called kindergarten vaccines because kids are often required to be up to date on their immunizations to start attending elementary school. No new vaccines are introduced at this time, but oftentimes vaccines are given as combinations.
For example, DTap and IPV can be given in a single shot. MMR and varicella vaccines can also be combined into a single immunization. These vaccines are just as effective when given together, and it cuts down on the number of shots kids need.
An overview of immunizations for kids ages 4 to 6 years old
- DTaP The fifth and final diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccine is recommended when your child is between 4 and 6 years old.
- IPV The fourth and final poliovirus vaccine is recommended when your child is between 4 and 6 years old.
- MMR The second and final dose of the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine is also recommended when your child is between 4 and 6 years old.
- Varicella The second and final dose of the chickenpox vaccine is also recommended when your child is between 4 and 6 years old.
How Is Rotavirus Treated
Babies and toddlers who are dehydrated may need treatment in a hospital. They’ll get intravenous fluids to bring the body’s fluid and salt levels back to normal. Most older kids can be treated at home.
Kids with diarrhea who arent vomiting can continue eating and drinking as usual, if they are feeling up to it. They should drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration. Those with mild dehydration should:
- Drink small amounts of an oral rehydration solution often. It has the right amount of water, sugar, and salt to help with dehydration. You can buy it without a prescription at drugstores or supermarkets.
- Avoid full-strength fruit juices, soda, and sports drinks, which can make diarrhea worse.
- Continue to breastfeed or take formula, as long as they are not vomiting a lot.
As your child starts to feel better, you can give less oral rehydration solution and more of their usual food and drink.
Don’t give your child over-the-counter medicines for vomiting or diarrhea unless your doctor recommends them.
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Newborn Tests & Vaccinations
Your babys first checkup begins in the hospital, when we check for any health concerns. These screenings can discover health conditions soon after birth and can help save a babys life or prevent serious problems.
Within 24 hours of birth, your baby will have a physical exam that checks his or her appearance and bodily functions. Vital signs, such as babys temperature, pulse and breathing rate, will be taken, and any signs of illness or birth defects will be investigated.
Blood Sugar Screening
If your child is at risk for low blood sugar, blood is obtained from a prick to the heel and is monitored for up to 24 hours, in most cases.
Jaundice is when a baby has a high level of bilirubin in the blood. Levels of bilirubin are measured through a non-invasive, painless test.
If your newborn has a high reading, the reading will be confirmed with a blood test.
For most babies, jaundice does not require treatment and will disappear within 1 to 2 weeks.
New York State Newborn Screening
New York State requires that newborns are tested for over 30 congenital conditions, including Krabbe disease, cystic fibrosis, and HIV. The test is performed using just five drops of blood that are obtained from pricking the babys heel.
The sample is obtained prior to babys discharge, and your test results will be sent to your physician.
A painless and comfortable hearing test is performed to check that your baby is able to hear sound
How Long Vaccines Take To Work
It usually takes a few weeks for vaccines to work. Your child will not be protected immediately.
Also, most vaccines need to be given several times to build up long-lasting protection. For example, a child who gets only 1 or 2 doses of the whooping cough vaccine is only partly protected. They may still catch whooping cough if the course is not completed.
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Concurrent Administration Of Vaccines
HB-containing vaccines may be administered concomitantly with other vaccines or with HBIg. Different injection sites and separate needles and syringes must be used for concurrent parenteral injections.
Refer to Timing of Vaccine Administration in Part 1 for additional information about concurrent administration of vaccines.
How Is Rotavirus Diagnosed
Doctors usually can tell if someone has stomach flu by hearing about the symptoms. Usually, no tests are needed. If a child is very sick or has blood or mucus in their poop, doctors might order a stool test to check for rotavirus and other germs that cause diarrhea. The doctor may also order a urine test or blood test to check for dehydration.
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Travel Advice For Children
If your child is going abroad, make sure their routine immunisations are up to date. Your child may also need extra immunisations and you may also need to take other precautions.
Contact your doctors surgery or a travel clinic well in advance for up-to-date information on the immunisations your child may need.
Your Babys First Shot
Shortly after birth, your baby should receive the first dose of the vaccine to help protect against the following disease:
All babies should get the first shot of hepatitis B vaccine within first 12 hours after birth.
This shot acts as a safety net, reducing the risk of getting the disease from you or family members who may not know they are infected with hepatitis B.
If you have hepatitis B, theres additional medicine that can help protect your newborn against hepatitis B its called hepatitis B immune globin . HBIG gives your babys body extra help to fight the virus as soon as your baby is born.
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Babies Who Should Not Have The 6
Most babies can have the 6-in-1 vaccine, but there are a few that should not, for example, those who:
- are allergic to the vaccine
- have a high temperature at the time of the vaccination appointment wait until they’ve recovered
- have a neurological problem thats getting worse, including poorly controlled epilepsy wait until theyve been seen by a specialist
The 6-in-1 vaccine should not be given to babies who have had a severe allergic reaction to a previous dose of the vaccine, or a reaction to any part of the vaccine that may be present in trace amounts, such as neomycin, streptomycin or polymixin B.
There’s no need to postpone vaccination if your baby has a minor illness, such as a cough or a cold with no temperature.
If your baby has a history of fits or has had a fit within 72 hours of a previous dose of the vaccine, speak to your GP surgery, nurse or health visitor for advice.
Schedule For Children Who Are More Likely To Get Meningitis
Younger kids will need a vaccine if they’re at a greater risk of getting meningitis because they:
- Have complement component deficiency, a rare immune system disease
- Have spleen damage or had their spleen removed
- Live in an area that had a meningitis outbreak
- Take drugs that affect their immune system
- Travel to a country where meningitis is common
For these cases, doctors strongly recommend MenACWY for kids ages 2 months to 10 years. The number of doses and boosters your child needs depends on their health, age, and how long they stay at risk for the disease. For example, a child with spleen damage will be at risk longer than someone who travels for a week to a country where meningitis is common. Check with your doctor to find out what your child needs.
Doctors also recommend that kids ages 10 and older with these risks get the standard doses of MenB.
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Measles Mumps Rubella And Varicella Vaccine
The Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care recently introduced a new measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccine to the Publicly Funded Immunization Schedules for Ontario.
Immunization against measles, mumps and rubella is required by law for all children attending school in Ontario, unless exempted. Immunization against varicella is also required for children born in 2010 or later.
What is measles?
Measles can be a serious infection. It causes high fever, cough, rash, runny nose and watery eyes. Measles lasts for one to two weeks. Ear infections or pneumonia can happen in one out of every 10 children with measles. Measles can also be complicated by encephalitis, an infection of the brain, in about one out of every 1,000 children with measles. This may cause brain damage and developmental delays. Measles can also make a pregnant woman have a miscarriage or give birth prematurely.
Measles spreads from person to person very easily and quickly. People can get measles from an infected person coughing or sneezing around them or simply talking to them.
What is mumps?
Mumps can cause very painful, swollen testicles in about one out of four teenage boys or adult men, and painful infection of the ovaries in one out of 20 women. Mumps infection during the first three months of pregnancy may increase the risk of miscarriage. Mumps can cause deafness in some people.
What is rubella ?
What is varicella ?
Newborn Treatments & Vaccines
Your newborn will be given medications and vaccines, some of which are required by law. Those that are not required by law are strongly recommended for your babys continued health. To learn more about required medications given after birth to babies .
Antibiotic Eye Ointment
Bacteria in the birth canal can cause newborns to develop eye infections that can result in blindness. To prevent eye infections, your baby will receive an antibiotic eye ointment, as required by New York State law.
Vitamin K Injection
When babies are born, they lack sufficient vitamin K, which is essential for blood clotting.
A vitamin K injection prevents vitamin K deficiency bleeding and is required by New York State law.
Hepatits B Vaccine
Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that damages the liver over time and has no cure. People with lifelong hepatitis B usually do not experience any outward symptoms and may not know that they have the disease.
All newborns should receive the first shot of the hepatitis B vaccine before leaving the hospital. This reduces the risk of getting the disease from mom or family members who do not know that they are affected.
Three to four doses of the vaccine are required:
- The first dose at birth
- A second dose at 1 through 3 months
- A third dose at 6 through 18 months of age
We will ask for your consent to administer a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine. This vaccine is strongly recommended.
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Can Rotavirus Be Prevented
The rotavirus vaccine can help prevent rotavirus. Its a liquid given by mouth to babies at ages 2 and 4 months, and again at 6 months, depending on the vaccine brand.
Washing hands well and often, especially after using the bathroom and before preparing or eating food, is the best way to prevent rotavirus infection. Kids with rotavirus should stay home from childcare until the diarrhea is gone.
What Is A Vaccination Schedule
A vaccination schedule is a plan with recommendations for which vaccines your children should get and when they should get them. Vaccines are one of the most important ways to prevent children from getting some dangerous diseases. By exposing you to a germ in a controlled way, vaccines teach your body to recognize and fight it.
Government vaccine recommendations are just that — recommendations. You arent forced to get them. But state laws require your kids to have certain vaccines before they can go to daycare, school, or college, with some exceptions. Vaccines protect not just your child, but everyone they come in contact with. The more people who get vaccinated, the harder it is for a disease to spread.
Before theyre approved for use and added to the schedule, vaccines go through years of testing to make sure they work and that theyre safe. The government keeps track of any reports of side effects to make sure no problems come up.
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