How Much Milk Formula For Newborn

Guidelines For Manufacturing Of Infant Formula

Utah mom selling almost 4,000 ounces of breast milk as baby formula shortage continues

Infant formulas must include proper amounts of water, carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. The composition of infant formula is strictly regulated, and each manufacturer must follow established guidelines set by government agencies. For instance, all the major components added to formula have a range of minimum and maximum values for their effectiveness. These components must have established a history of safe use . The required range of each nutrient must be maintained throughout the shelf life of the product . For amino acids, only L forms of amino acid are allowed to be added, while D forms are not permitted because they may cause D-lactic acidosis . Fructose should be avoided due to fructose intolerance. Hydrogenated fats and oils are also not allowed. Ionizing radiation of the formula product is not permitted because it could cause product deterioration . Infant formula prepared ready for consumption should contain no less than 60 kcal and no more than 70 kcal of energy per 100 mL . Furthermore, product reformulation must be based on medical and nutritional findings. The committee of the Evaluation of the addition of Ingredients New to Infant Formula has recommended that manufacturers must demonstrate that the formula containing the new ingredient is capable of sustaining physical growth and development over 120 days when formula is likely to be the sole source of infant nutrition .

Care Advice For Bottle Feeding

  • Types of Formulas:
  • Milk-protein formulas, soy-protein formulas, and hydrolysate formulas
  • Soy formulas don’t contain lactose or cow’s milk protein. Currently, 20% of infants in the U.S. are fed soy formula. Often, switching to soy is not done with a valid reason.
  • Hydrolysate formulas mean the protein is broken down. These are advised when children are sensitive to both soy and milk protein.
  • Switching Formulas and Milk Allergies:
  • Switching from one milk-based formula to another is not helpful for any symptom. It is also not harmful.
  • Switching from milk formula to soy formula is sometimes helpful for severe diarrhea. This may occur from temporary low lactase levels. It may also be used for those families who are vegetarian.
  • Switching from milk formula to soy is sometimes helpful for cow’s milk allergy. A cow’s milk allergy occurs in 1-2% of infants. Most often, protein hydrolysate formulas are advised. This is because 15% of these infants are also allergic to soy protein.
  • Switching formulas for frequent crying, spitting up or gas is rarely helpful.
  • Don’t switch formulas without talking with your child’s doctor.
  • Powdered versus Liquid Formulas:
  • Formulas come in 3 forms: powder, concentrated liquid and ready-to-feed liquid.
  • Concentrated formulas are mixed 1:1 with water.
  • Ready-to-feed formulas do not need any added water.
  • Powdered formulas are mixed 2 ounces of water per each level scoop of powder. Never add extra water because dilute formula can cause a seizure.
  • Exceptions:
  • How To Calculate Formula Needs

    In addition to looking for cues to when your baby is hungry and when they’ve had enough, you can use different techniques to estimate the amount of formula to prepare. But again, from one day to the next, your baby may want more or less at any feeding. So watching for hunger/fullness cues is important.

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    First Weeks And Months

    Some babies need additional vitamin D.

    Babies who are fed breast milk exclusively or who receive both breast milk and infant formula need extra vitamin D, starting shortly after birth. They can get this through over-the-counter vitamin D drops. Babies receiving only infant formula do not need vitamin D drops. Infant formula is fortified with vitamin D.

    • Over the first few weeks and months, the time between feedings will get longerabout every 3 to 4 hours for most infant formula-fed babies. This means you may need to wake your baby to feed. You can try patting, stroking, undressing, or changing the diaper to help wake your baby to feed.
    • Some feeding sessions may be long, and other feedings short. That is okay. Babies will generally take what they need at each feeding and stop eating when they are full.

    A Concise History Of Infant Formula

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    Jump to: Choose article section… From wet nursing to dry nursing The search for a breast milk substitute Physicians take charge Pasteurization and healthier milk Big breakthrough: Evaporated milk Seeking a “humanized” formula The rise of proprietary formulas The modern era: Fine-tuning formulas The pediatrician’s infant formula trivia quiz

    Finding an acceptable alternative to breast milk has proved to be a complicated quest that continues today with an ever-growing assortment of modified and specialized infant formulas.

    If you are a “mature” pediatricianone older than 40 years or sothere is a good chance that, if you were not breastfed as an infant, you were fed a formula created by mixing 13 oz of evaporated milk with 19 oz of water and two tablespoons of either corn syrup or table sugar. Every day, parents prepared a day’s worth of this formula, transferred it to bottles that they had sterilized in a pan of boiling water, and stored it in a refrigerator until used. In addition to formula, infants received supplemental vitamins and iron.1

    Infant nutrition has a fascinating history that began long before pediatricians recommended evaporated milk formula, and eventually commercial formula, as alternatives to breastfeeding. In this first article in an occasional series that puts the practice of pediatrics into historical perspective, we’ll take a look at how infant formulas were developed and how they evolved over time.

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    Pasteurization And Healthier Milk

    In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, physicians came to understand that diseases were caused by germs and could be transmitted by consuming contaminated foodstuffs. In particular, raw milk, which spoiled readily , was found to transmit a variety of diseases, including tuberculosis, typhoid fever, cholera, and diphtheria.

    In 1864, Louis Pasteur discovered that keeping wine at a high temperature killed the bacteria that caused the wine to sour. The pasteurization process was employed by the dairy industry in 1890not to make milk “healthier” but to prevent milk transported in unrefrigerated railroad cars from souring. Several years later, it was discovered that pasteurization also protected against milk-borne diseases.3

    Many physicians vigorously opposed pasteurization, however, because they believed that the process significantly diminished the nutritional value of milk. In fact, pasteurized milk was found to be deficient in what were later identified as vitamins C and D, and children consuming pasteurized milk received daily doses of orange juice and cod liver oil to prevent scurvy and rickets. Pasteurization of milk became a universal practice in the US by about 1915.

    Tips For Using Baby Formula

    Now that you have the basic formula facts, here are some quick tips for safe and effective feeding with formula.




    Talk to your pediatrician if you’re unsure which formula to use.

    Spock, B. and Rothenberg, M. Dr. Spocks Baby and Child Care, 6th Edition, Simon & Schuster, 1992.

    American Academy of Family Physicians: Infant Formula.

    American Academy of Pediatrics: Water Intoxication In The News, Choosing a Formula, Probiotics in Formulas, How To Safely Prepare Formula With Water.

    Cleveland Clinic: Bottle Feeding a Newborn Baby.

    Food and Drug Administration: Feeding Your Baby with Breast Milk or Formula.

    MedicineNet: Infant Formulas.

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    Guide For Formula Feeding

    • When breast milk is not available, standard infant formula is an appropriate alternative for most healthy full term infants, but there are some differences between brands. Do not hesitate to ask your health care provider for a recommendation if you are unsure which formula to use.
    • Bottle-feeding should be interactive, with the caregiver holding both the bottle and the infant. Propping a bottle has been linked to an increased risk of ear infections and tooth decay.
    • Formula feeding should be in response to the infants needs and not based on a predetermined schedule. Look for cues of hunger and fullness to determine both when to feed and how much. The number of wet diapers per day and your childs growth will reflect if he or she is getting enough formula. The chart below demonstrates common intakes for infants at various stages. However, ask your health care provider if you have any questions about how much formula your infant is taking.
    • The amount of formula an infant takes will decrease as the baby increases intake of solid foods, but formula remains a significant source of calories, protein, calcium and vitamin D for the first year of life.
    • Ask your health care provider before switching an infant less than 1 year of age from formula to cows milk or a cows milk alternative.

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    How can I know how many ounces of milk or formula my baby needs?
    • Breastmilk is the feeding option of choice for infants.
    • If breastmilk is not available, then infant formula is a suitable alternative.
    • Breastmilk or formula should be the main milk used until the baby is 12 months old.
    • Choose a formula to match the age and needs of your baby, and always read the label carefully as labels for other products can look very similar to those for infants.
    • If you believe your baby has a problem with feeding, discuss this with your maternal and child health nurse or doctor before switching brands.

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    How To Mix And Handle Formula

    • Check the expiration date on the container. Don’t use if the formula is past this date.
    • Wash the top of the new container before opening it.
    • It is important that you follow the mixing directions on the can. Your baby can get sick if you use too much water or not enough water.
    • You may use city water to mix concentrated or powder formula. You may use well water if you boil it before using.
    • Heat the water to a full boil for at least one minute.
    • Pour the water into a clean container and cover it. Keep it in the refrigerator.
    • Use the water within three days of mixing formula.
  • Most babies prefer to have their formula warmed to body temperature. Some older babies will take a bottle right out of the refrigerator.
  • To warm the mixed formula in a bottle, place it in a pan of warm water, or use a bottle warmer.
  • Never heat mixed formula in the microwave. This destroys nutrients and can cause hot spots that could burn your baby’s mouth or throat.
  • Shake the bottle to mix the powder or concentrate evenly.
  • Be sure to test the temperature of the formula before giving it to your baby. Squirt a few drops of formula on the inside of your wrist. The temperature should be comfortably warm. It should not be hot.
  • Follow the storage directions on the formula container.
  • Throw away mixed formula that has been sitting out at room temperature for more than 30 minutes. It could make your baby sick.
  • Keep An Eye On Growth

    The most important thing is that your baby is growing and gaining weight at a healthy rate. Checking in regularly with your pediatrician will ensure that he or she is tracking your babys growth curve, which is the best way to determine whether your little one is getting enough formula. Typically, infants gain between half an ounce and an ounce of weight every day for their first three months, and around half an ounce a day between the ages of three months and six months.

    Its normal for babies to lose as much as 10% of their birth weight in the first five days, so dont panic if you notice your newborns weight dipping in those early days. By the age of two weeks, your little one should be back up to their birth weight.

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    How To Save On Baby Formula

    Because some mothers may find breastfeeding difficult, time consuming or even impossible, they want to make sure they are making the right choice when it comes to formula. They also want to be mindful of their wallet when deciding on their brand of choice. But if you use baby formula, there are plenty of ways to slash the price tag. After all, the cost of raising a child is high enough.

    Always buy in bulk, and make sure you have a list when you walk into the grocery store, said Neale Godfrey, a financial literacy expert.

    She added that this list should prioritize the items you need for your baby. For instance, organic products that you need would go at the top. Lists are useful to have when youre browsing the aisles, but they can be especially handy while youre shopping online. That way, you make sure youre getting all that you need and watching your budget.

    Here are some additional tips to reduce the price of baby formula.

    Comparison shop online: E-commerce websites dont have the same overhead as physical stores, so they can often reduce the price of your favorite baby formula especially when you buy in large quantities.

    Buy in bulk: These days, you can find several stores and websites that offer discounts when you buy baby formula in bulk. While there, you can also cut down on other products you need for your baby.

    Ask your doctor for free samples: Major brands often provide doctors with free batches of their products, so ask if your doctor has some on hand.

    Bottles For Expressed Breastmilk Or Infant Formula

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    When buying bottles, remember that:

    • You will need at least three large bottles with leak-proof caps, discs and teats.
    • Plastic bottles are better, because glass breaks more easily.
    • Bottles should be smooth on the inside surface , so they are easy to clean properly.
    • Bottles should have clearly marked measurement guides that will not wear off over time.

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    Resources For Parents Families And Carers

    Booklet: Child health information , Queensland Government

    Growing StrongFormula feeding , Queensland Government

    Raising Children NetworkNewborns nutrition, Australian Government

    Raising Children NetworkBreastfeeding videos, Australian Government

    Booklet: Breastfeeding and postnatal care, New South Wales Governmentavailable in English, Arabic, Chinese , Chinese ,Farsi, Hindi, Korean, Punjabi and Tamil languages

    Day 14 To 6 Months Maintaining

    During this stage, it is important to follow a few simple rules to ensure your baby is getting the right amount of nutrients they need.

    Make sure they are nursing efficiently and consuming the regular amounts they need. Keep an eye on your babys feeding routine. If you see them deviate from this or begin to lose their appetite, consult your pediatrician for further guidance.


    At around 2 months, your baby will consume around 120-150 ml during each feed. During this stage, your body will switch from producing colostrum to releasing more mature milk. This will enable you to meet the needs of your newborn baby and adapt as they grow.

    At 4 months you may notice that your baby will consume more milk during each feeding. This will typically be around 120-180 ml and will increase until around the 6-month mark.

    Bottle Feeding

    When bottle-feeding during this period you can use the same rule of calculating your babys weight and multiplying by 2.5 to get the desired amount of formula you need. However, the average amount is as follows.

    • One month: 120 ml per feeding.
    • Two months: 120-150 ml ounces per feeding.
    • Four months: 120-180 ml ounces per feeding.
    • Six months: 180-240 ml ounces per feeding.

    Using this as a guideline will help you determine how much you need. However, keeping an eye on your babys appetite will also enable you to determine how much they will need.

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