Rotavirus Vaccine Given At 2 And 4 Months
What is rotavirus?
Rotavirus is a common infection that causes vomiting and diarrhea in infants and children. Rotavirus is very contagious, spreading easily from children who are already infected to other infants, children and sometimes adults. Most children are infected with rotavirus at least once by five years of age. Serious but rare symptoms commonly seen in children less than two years of age include severe diarrhea, leading to hospitalization.
Rotavirus infection is a major cause of visits to health care providers and hospital stays for infants and children under five years of age in Ontario. Deaths in Ontario due to rotavirus are rare.
Some immunizations are required for children to attend school in Ontario. Please see the school immunization checklist for more information.
When Should My Child Be Vaccinated
Your child needs to be vaccinated at several stages in order to be fully protected. Some vaccines need to be given more than once to build up your child’s immune system.
Immunization schedules could be different depending in which province or territory you live in. This means that some provinces or territories will give the same vaccine at different ages. But don’t worry, your healthcare provider will give you a vaccination schedule that will tell you which vaccines are needed and at what age. Another way to find your child’s immunization schedule is to check Canada.ca/vaccines where the schedule for each province and territory is listed.
Hereâs an example of a typical schedule to be fully protected, your child will be vaccinated starting at birth or age two months, then at four months, six months, between 12 months and 18 months-and also between ages four to six years. Additional vaccinations are needed for school age children.
Why Do Children Get So Many Vaccinations
A number of vaccinations are required in the first few years of a childs life to protect them against some of the most serious childhood infectious diseases. The immune system in young children does not work as well as the immune system in older children and adults, because it is still immature. Therefore, more doses of the vaccine are needed.
Another reason children get many vaccinations is that new vaccines against serious infections continue to be developed. The number of injections is reduced by the use of combination vaccines, where several vaccines are combined into one injection.
For a full list of recommended vaccinations for children, visit the general National Immunisation Program schedule or the National Immunisation Program schedule for all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
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Diphtheria Tetanus Pertussis Polio Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Vaccine
DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccine given at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months and 18 months
DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccine is a combined vaccine that protects children against five diseases diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio and serious diseases like meningitis caused by haemophilus influenzae type b.
Immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and polio is required by law for all children attending school in Ontario, unless exempted.
What is diphtheria?
Diphtheria is a serious disease of the nose, throat and skin. It causes sore throat, fever and chills. It can be complicated by breathing problems, heart failure and nerve damage. Diphtheria kills about one out of every 10 people who get the disease. It is most often passed to others through coughing and sneezing.
What is tetanus?
Tetanus or lockjaw is a serious disease that can happen if dirt with tetanus germ gets into a cut in the skin. Tetanus germs are found everywhere, usually in soil, dust and manure. It does not spread from person to person. Tetanus causes cramping of the muscles in the neck, arms, leg and stomach and painful convulsions which can be severe enough to break bones. Even with early treatment, tetanus kills two out of every 10 people who get it.
What is pertussis?
What is polio?
What is haemophilus influenzae type b disease?
Children under five years are more likely to get Hib disease. Children who attend childcare centres are even more likely to catch it. The Hib germ spreads to others through coughing and sneezing.
What To Do If You Move
If you move to another province or territory, your child’s vaccination schedule may change. Once you have moved, contact your new health care provider or local public health office. They will tell you which vaccines may be needed in that province or territory.
Remember to take your child’s vaccination record to the appointment with you.
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Where Can My Child Get Vaccinated
Your child can get vaccinated at your local health unit. Health units are also called public health units, community health centres, or primary care homes in some areas of BC. Some family doctors and nurse practitioners also give vaccines. Pharmacists can vaccinate children who are five years of age and older. Services vary across BC.
Its best to book your childs appointment well in advance as clinics book up quickly. This helps to ensure your child is vaccinated on time.
Newborn Treatments & Vaccines
Your newborn will be given medications and vaccines, some of which are required by law. Those that are not required by law are strongly recommended for your babys continued health. To learn more about required medications given after birth to babies .
Antibiotic Eye Ointment
Bacteria in the birth canal can cause newborns to develop eye infections that can result in blindness. To prevent eye infections, your baby will receive an antibiotic eye ointment, as required by New York State law.
Vitamin K Injection
When babies are born, they lack sufficient vitamin K, which is essential for blood clotting.
A vitamin K injection prevents vitamin K deficiency bleeding and is required by New York State law.
Hepatits B Vaccine
Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that damages the liver over time and has no cure. People with lifelong hepatitis B usually do not experience any outward symptoms and may not know that they have the disease.
All newborns should receive the first shot of the hepatitis B vaccine before leaving the hospital. This reduces the risk of getting the disease from mom or family members who do not know that they are affected.
Three to four doses of the vaccine are required:
- The first dose at birth
- A second dose at 1 through 3 months
- A third dose at 6 through 18 months of age
We will ask for your consent to administer a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine. This vaccine is strongly recommended.
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If Your Child Is Missing A Vaccine
Life can get busy and you may not be able to make every vaccination appointment for your child. Your child may also have missed vaccines from your health care provider or their school because of the COVID-19 pandemic.
It is important to call your health care provider or local public health authority if your child missed receiving any vaccines. They can help your child get back on track with the recommended vaccination schedule. This will help to protect your child from many vaccine-preventable diseases.
Newborn Tests & Vaccinations
Your babys first checkup begins in the hospital, when we check for any health concerns. These screenings can discover health conditions soon after birth and can help save a babys life or prevent serious problems.
Within 24 hours of birth, your baby will have a physical exam that checks his or her appearance and bodily functions. Vital signs, such as babys temperature, pulse and breathing rate, will be taken, and any signs of illness or birth defects will be investigated.
Blood Sugar Screening
If your child is at risk for low blood sugar, blood is obtained from a prick to the heel and is monitored for up to 24 hours, in most cases.
Jaundice is when a baby has a high level of bilirubin in the blood. Levels of bilirubin are measured through a non-invasive, painless test.
If your newborn has a high reading, the reading will be confirmed with a blood test.
For most babies, jaundice does not require treatment and will disappear within 1 to 2 weeks.
New York State Newborn Screening
New York State requires that newborns are tested for over 30 congenital conditions, including Krabbe disease, cystic fibrosis, and HIV. The test is performed using just five drops of blood that are obtained from pricking the babys heel.
The sample is obtained prior to babys discharge, and your test results will be sent to your physician.
A painless and comfortable hearing test is performed to check that your baby is able to hear sound
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Do Vaccination Needles Hurt
Although generally quick, getting vaccinations can be painful for your child. The best way you can make it as painless as possible is to hold your child, and soothe and comfort them. Breastfeeding can also help reduce pain. You can use a number of other techniques to reduce the pain your child might experience.
Benefits Of The Hepatitis B Vaccine
The main benefit of the vaccine is its effectiveness. The AAP note that if doctors give the first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of the babys delivery, it is 75 to 95 percent effective in preventing the passage of hepatitis B from the birth mother to the baby.
If the newborn also receives the medication hepatitis B immune globulin at the correct time and a series of follow-up vaccines, the AAP estimate that the infection rate drops to between 0.7 and 1.1 percent.
For the best possible protection, the baby will need to complete the full series of vaccines.
state that the vaccine is very safe. The full series of the vaccine provides the highest possible level of protection from the infection.
Some people still express concern about the safety of vaccination. The reasons for this worry may vary.
Part of the fear may be due to older research. For example, a 2009 study indicated an association between the Engerix B vaccine, a specific type of hepatitis B vaccine, and an increased risk of damage to the central nervous system later in life.
However, the researchers note that this was the exception, not the rule. They also highlight the need for more studies to validate this finding.
On the whole, their research indicates that hepatitis B vaccination generally does not increase the risk of damage to the CNS.
The majority of research indicates that hepatitis B vaccines are a safe and effective way to prevent the infection.
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Measles Mumps Rubella And Varicella Vaccine
The Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care recently introduced a new measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccine to the Publicly Funded Immunization Schedules for Ontario.
Immunization against measles, mumps and rubella is required by law for all children attending school in Ontario, unless exempted. Immunization against varicella is also required for children born in 2010 or later.
What is measles?
Measles can be a serious infection. It causes high fever, cough, rash, runny nose and watery eyes. Measles lasts for one to two weeks. Ear infections or pneumonia can happen in one out of every 10 children with measles. Measles can also be complicated by encephalitis, an infection of the brain, in about one out of every 1,000 children with measles. This may cause brain damage and developmental delays. Measles can also make a pregnant woman have a miscarriage or give birth prematurely.
Measles spreads from person to person very easily and quickly. People can get measles from an infected person coughing or sneezing around them or simply talking to them.
What is mumps?
Mumps can cause very painful, swollen testicles in about one out of four teenage boys or adult men, and painful infection of the ovaries in one out of 20 women. Mumps infection during the first three months of pregnancy may increase the risk of miscarriage. Mumps can cause deafness in some people.
What is rubella ?
What is varicella ?
What If We Missed A Shot
Life with young children can be very busy. You may not be able to make every vaccination appointment for your child. But it is important to get back on schedule.
You should book an appointment with your healthcare provider as soon as possible. They can help you figure out what vaccines your child has already had and which ones are needed.
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What Is The Immune System
The immune system is a special network in the body that protects you from germs, like bacteria and viruses that cause diseases. Through a series of steps called the immune response, the immune system learns how to recognize germs in order to fight them if your child is exposed to them in the future.
Your child is exposed to thousands of germs daily at home, at daycare or in the grocery store. Even a sweet kiss from a brother or sister can be full of germs. Most of these germs are harmless and are easily handled by your child’s immune system. But some germs can make your child very sick.
Thanks to vaccination, your child’s immune system learns how to recognize harmful germs. Vaccines help your child to develop the necessary defences to fight disease, and to stay healthy!
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If Your Child Can’t Be Vaccinated
Some children may not be able to get some vaccines, including those with:
- specific medical conditions
- severe allergic reactions to vaccine ingredients
Examples include children who need to take high-dose steroids or who have a weakened immune system from cancer treatment . These children may need to avoid vaccines that contain a weakened live virus, such as measles, mumps, rubella and chickenpox.
These children are at risk of getting the disease that the vaccine would have prevented.
Talk to your health care provider or local public health authority if you have any concerns about your child’s health status and vaccines.
If your child can’t be vaccinated, you can help protect them by encouraging others to get vaccinated. This will help prevent the spread of disease to your child.
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When To Call Your Healthcare Provider
Serious reactions to vaccines are very rare. Call your healthcare provider or public health office if your child has unusual symptoms after vaccination.
Unusual symptoms may include:
- a fever above 40Â°C
- crying or fussing for more than 24 hours
- worsening swelling where the needle went in and/or
- unusual sleepiness.
You know your child best. If you notice anything that is not normal after a vaccination, check with your healthcare provider.
What If A Family Member Or Friend Refuses To Get Vaccinated
When everyones vaccinations are up to date, parents can feel more secure about the safety of their child. But what if someone refuses?
Just as they would take the common courtesy to wash their hands and stay away if they are exhibiting any signs of an illness , anyone around your baby should also protect against life-threatening infections that could harm your infant.
I would suggest that parents take a strong stand if a family member is not willing to get vaccinated, Dr. Espinoza said. I would not let them near my children until my kids have been adequately vaccinated and are a bit older .
Vaccinations can be a hot-button topic, so try and approach this topic as early as possible before the arrival of baby. If everyone takes necessary precautions, the vast majority of serious infections for newborns can be prevented.
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