Diphtheria Tetanus And Pertussis Vaccination
- 5-dose series at 2, 4, 6, 1518 months, 46 years
- Prospectively: Dose 4 may be administered as early as age 12 months if at least 6 months have elapsed since dose 3.
- Retrospectively: A 4th dose that was inadvertently administered as early as age 12 months may be counted if at least 4 months have elapsed since dose 3.
- Dose 5 is not necessary if dose 4 was administered at age 4 years or older and at least 6 months after dose 3.
- For other catch-up guidance, see Table 2.
- Wound management in children less than age 7 years with history of 3 or more doses of tetanus-toxoid-containing vaccine: For all wounds except clean and minor wounds, administer DTaP if more than 5 years since last dose of tetanus-toxoid-containing vaccine. For detailed information, see www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/rr/rr6702a1.htm.
Newborn Tests & Vaccinations
Your babys first checkup begins in the hospital, when we check for any health concerns. These screenings can discover health conditions soon after birth and can help save a babys life or prevent serious problems.
Within 24 hours of birth, your baby will have a physical exam that checks his or her appearance and bodily functions. Vital signs, such as babys temperature, pulse and breathing rate, will be taken, and any signs of illness or birth defects will be investigated.
Blood Sugar Screening
If your child is at risk for low blood sugar, blood is obtained from a prick to the heel and is monitored for up to 24 hours, in most cases.
Jaundice is when a baby has a high level of bilirubin in the blood. Levels of bilirubin are measured through a non-invasive, painless test.
If your newborn has a high reading, the reading will be confirmed with a blood test.
For most babies, jaundice does not require treatment and will disappear within 1 to 2 weeks.
New York State Newborn Screening
New York State requires that newborns are tested for over 30 congenital conditions, including Krabbe disease, cystic fibrosis, and HIV. The test is performed using just five drops of blood that are obtained from pricking the babys heel.
The sample is obtained prior to babys discharge, and your test results will be sent to your physician.
A painless and comfortable hearing test is performed to check that your baby is able to hear sound
What Are The Types Of Vaccines
There are a few different types of vaccines. They include:
- Attenuated live germs are used in some vaccines such as in the measles, mumps, and rubella and chickenpox vaccines.
- Killed germs are used in some vaccines, such as in the flu shot or the inactivated poliovirus vaccine.
- Toxoid vaccines contain an inactivated toxin made by the germ. For example, the diphtheria and tetanus vaccines are toxoid vaccines.
- Conjugate vaccines contain small pieces of the germ combined with proteins that help trigger a strong immune response. Many commonly used vaccines are made this way, including those that protect against hepatitis B, HPV, whooping cough, and meningitis.
- mRNA vaccines use a piece of the germs RNA, which is part of its genetic material. Some of the COVID-19 vaccines are this type.
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that kids get combination vaccines whenever possible. Many vaccines are offered in combination to help lower the number of shots a child gets. This has been shown to be very safe. From the day a baby is born, their immune system is exposed to countless germs every day. A few more in a combination vaccine is very easy for the immune system to handle.
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Do You Recommend These Same Vaccines For Grandparents And Other Family Members Who Will Be In Close Contact With The Newborn
I do. All close contacts to the newborn should be vaccinated with the annual influenza vaccine at least 2 weeks before meeting the baby.
They should also have had Tdap in the last 10 years. If they have not received that vaccine, they should get a Tdap booster at least 2 weeks before meeting the baby.
Why Do Children Get So Many Vaccinations
A number of vaccinations are required in the first few years of a childs life to protect them against some of the most serious childhood infectious diseases. The immune system in young children does not work as well as the immune system in older children and adults, because it is still immature. Therefore, more doses of the vaccine are needed.
Another reason children get many vaccinations is that new vaccines against serious infections continue to be developed. The number of injections is reduced by the use of combination vaccines, where several vaccines are combined into one injection.
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Haemophilus Influenzae Type B And Pneumococcus
Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcus are bacteria that cause pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis in infants.
“In the past, before this vaccine, a hospital like Loma Linda University Childrens Hospital would treat two to four cases every week,” Soneji says. “With Hib, 50% of kids would have some morbidity or mortality so they would either die or be left with a disability ranging from mild hearing loss to developmental problems like cerebral palsy. All from this one bacterium causing meningitis.”
According to Soneji, physicians have also seen that when infants and kids are vaccinated against pneumococcus, their grandparents contract pneumonia less often.
Possible Risks And Side Effects
The hepatitis B vaccine is extremely safe, and most infants who get the vaccine have no issues. But as with any medicationincluding vaccinesthere is a chance of side effects.
For those who do experience side effects, they are usually mild including soreness at the injection site and possibly a low-grade fever. Reports of serious side effects from the vaccination or allergic reactions are extremely rare. According to the AAP, commonly reported mild adverse reactions from the vaccine in all people include swelling , fever , headache , erythema or redness , and pain .
Yet, it’s normal for parents to worry about the vaccine with so much conflicting information out there. For instance, some parents worry that vaccinations like hepatitis B will increase the likelihood that their child will develop neurological issues like autism, multiple sclerosis, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder . But there is no conclusive evidence that this can occur.
What’s more, the AAP points out that the safety of the hepatitis B vaccine has been studied extensively and that there is no evidence of a causal association between the vaccine and neonatal sepsis or death.
Instead, focus on comforting your baby while also supporting your baby’s doctor and nurses. It can help to provide some sort of distraction while the vaccine is being administered in addition to comforting measures after.
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How Does Immunisation Work
Immunisation is a simple, safe and effective way to protect children against certain diseases. The serious health risks of these diseases are far greater than the very small risks of immunisation.
Immunisation protects children against harmful infections before they come into contact with them in the community.
It uses the bodys natural defence mechanism the immune system to build resistance to specific infections. Generally it takes about 2 weeks after vaccination for the immune system to respond fully.
Vaccination is the term used for getting a vaccine that is, getting the injection or taking an oral vaccine dose. Immunisation refers to the process of both getting the vaccine and becoming immune to the disease after vaccination.
Learn more about the difference between vaccination and immunisation.
Vaccines for babies and young children are funded under the Department of Health’s National Immunisation Program.
In Australia, babies and children are immunised against the following diseases:
The hepatitis A vaccine is free for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children living in high-risk areas .
Children aged 6 months to under 5 years can have the flu vaccine for free each year. It is available in autumn. Children aged 12 to 13 should be vaccinated against human papillomavirus through their schools.
Most vaccines recommended in the program are given by injection. Some combine several vaccines in the one injection.
Why Vaccinate Newborns For Hepatitis B
If you’re like many parents, you may wonder why doctors recommend vaccinating all children against hepatitis B. Although vaccinating infants of mothers who are infected with hepatitis B and delaying vaccinating others is one strategy for preventing hepatitis B in newborns, it’s not as effective as universal immunization.
In fact, health experts tried this approach first, immunizing select newborns when the hepatitis B vaccination first came out, and unfortunately, it wasn’t successful. Too many children were still getting sick from hepatitis B.
It wasn’t until after the universal immunization program for the hepatitis B vaccine began that the rate of new hepatitis B infections in children began to drop. That’s why medical professionals recommend vaccinating all newborns against hepatitis B.
In a universal immunization program, all newborns are immunized against the virus, even if their mothers test negative for hepatitis B infections.
Giving this birth dose of the vaccination helps prevent the disease from developing in babies who have mothers who have hepatitis B infections but never knew it. It also prevents a scenario in which the mother has a known hepatitis B infection, but the baby somehow misses the hepatitis B shot. This scenario can occur when a mother fails to report her hepatitis B infection to her doctor, forgets that she has the infection, or gets a false negative on her hepatitis B test.
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Dtap Diphtheria Tetanus And Pertussis
This combined vaccine protects from these three diseases. Diphtheria and tetanus are caused by bacteria, which produce toxins in the body. The vaccine helps the body produce antibodies to fight those toxins, Soneji says.
According to the CDC, diphtheria can lead to paralysis, difficulty breathing, heart failure, and even infant mortality.
Tetanus causes painful muscle contractions, including lockjaw, making it hard for a baby to swallow or move their mouth, Soneji says. The bacteria causing tetanus can even be found in the dirt so any child just innocently playing in their backyard could be exposed, he says.
Infants are most susceptible to pertussis or whooping cough. This disease causes violent coughing and breathing difficulties. For infants, it can be deadly, Soneji says.
Importance Of Vaccines For Infant And Toddlers
For newborns, breast milk can help protect against many diseases. However, this immunity wears off after breastfeeding is over, and some children arent breastfed at all.
Whether or not children are breastfed, vaccines can help protect them from disease. Vaccines can also help prevent the spread of disease through the rest of the population through herd immunity.
Vaccines work by imitating infection of a certain disease in your childs body. This prompts your childs immune system to develop weapons called antibodies.
These antibodies fight the disease that the vaccine is meant to prevent. With their body now primed to make antibodies, your childs immune system can defeat future infection from the disease. Its an amazing feat.
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What Do You Suggest Expecting Parents Do If Family Members Are Hesitantor Outright Refuseto Get Vaccinated
I personally take a strong stanceif a family member is not willing to get vaccinated, I dont let them near my children until my kids have been adequately vaccinated and are a bit older .
The issue of vaccines should be brought up the same way that an expecting parent speaks to family members about other illnesses.
Just as you would ask them to wash their hands, check themselves for signs/symptoms of illness , anyone wanting to be close to a newborn should be willing to vaccinate themselves against infections that could seriously harm the baby.
What Is A Vaccination Schedule
A vaccination schedule is a plan with recommendations for which vaccines your children should get and when they should get them. Vaccines are one of the most important ways to prevent children from getting some dangerous diseases. By exposing you to a germ in a controlled way, vaccines teach your body to recognize and fight it.
Government vaccine recommendations are just that — recommendations. You arent forced to get them. But state laws require your kids to have certain vaccines before they can go to daycare, school, or college, with some exceptions. Vaccines protect not just your child, but everyone they come in contact with. The more people who get vaccinated, the harder it is for a disease to spread.
Before theyre approved for use and added to the schedule, vaccines go through years of testing to make sure they work and that theyre safe. The government keeps track of any reports of side effects to make sure no problems come up.
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What Should I Do If My Child Is Behind On Their Vaccination Schedule
Dont worry. There are catch-up recommendations in place. But since each vaccine has its own guidelines, talk with your childs doctor to make a plan for getting back on schedule. They can talk with you about your childs medical and immunization history, give you more information on specific vaccines and catch-up guidelines, and discuss any concerns or questions you may have.
Does your child need catch-up vaccinations? Dont delay.
Who Should Get The Hepatitis B Vaccine At Birth
The hepatitis B vaccine is given to a baby at birth if their mother has hepatitis B, or is at high risk of hepatitis B infection. A baby who has a household member or caregiver with hepatitis B should also get the vaccine at birth. For a list of those who are at higher risk of hepatitis B infection, see HealthLinkBC File #25a Hepatitis B Vaccine.
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What Are The Side Effects Of Vaccinations
Many children get minor side effects such as redness, soreness and swelling where the needle went in, mild fever, and being irritable or unsettled. If your child has any of these side effects, give them extra fluids to drink, dont overdress them if they feel hot, and consider giving them paracetamol to help ease any fever or soreness. Most side effects are short-lasting and the child recovers without any problems.
For young children about to receive their meningococcal B vaccination, you can give them the recommended dose of paracetamol beforehand. This can help reduce the chance of your child developing a fever. Talk to your doctor or child health nurse before your appointment about how to do this.
Serious reactions to vaccinations are very rare. However, if they do occur, take your child to the doctor immediately.