How Vaccines Are Given
Most vaccines are given by needle in the upper arm or thigh. Some vaccines, like the rotavirus vaccine, are given by mouth. There’s also a flu vaccine for children that’s sprayed into the nose.
Some vaccines are given separately. Others, like the MMR vaccine, protect against 3 diseases in one vaccine.
Your child’s immune system can learn from more than 1 vaccine at a time. For instance, babies can respond to 10,000 different antigens at any one time.
Diphtheria Tetanus And Pertussis Vaccination
- 5-dose series at 2, 4, 6, 1518 months, 46 years
- Prospectively: Dose 4 may be administered as early as age 12 months if at least 6 months have elapsed since dose 3.
- Retrospectively: A 4th dose that was inadvertently administered as early as age 12 months may be counted if at least 4 months have elapsed since dose 3.
- Dose 5 is not necessary if dose 4 was administered at age 4 years or older and at least 6 months after dose 3.
- For other catch-up guidance, see Table 2.
- Wound management in children less than age 7 years with history of 3 or more doses of tetanus-toxoid-containing vaccine: For all wounds except clean and minor wounds, administer DTaP if more than 5 years since last dose of tetanus-toxoid-containing vaccine. For detailed information, see www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/rr/rr6702a1.htm.
What Is The Hepatitis B Vaccine
Immunizations start at birth. The first immunization given is the hepatitis B vaccine. Listed below are some facts about hepatitis B:
Hepatitis B is a disease of the liver caused by hepatitis B virus .
Potentially, there may not be any symptoms present when first infected the likelihood of early symptoms decreases with the person’s age. If present, yellow skin or eyes, tiredness, stomachache, loss of appetite, nausea, or joint pain may occur.
The younger the person is when infected with HBV, the greater the likelihood of staying infected and having life-long liver problems, such as scarring of the liver and liver cancer.
The disease can be spread from an infected pregnant mother to her baby, through contact with the blood of an infected person, or by having sex with an infected person. It can also be spread by sharing objects, such as toothbrushes or razors.
The HBV vaccine will prevent this disease. This vaccine is given to nearly all newborns. Additional doses are given before age 18 months. If newborns are exposed to HBV before, during, or after birth, both the vaccine and a special HBV immune globulin dose are given within 12 hours of birth. The CDC recommends that all babies complete the HBV vaccine series between age 6 months and 18 months to be fully protected against HBV infection. This full series gives long-term protection against HBV and booster shots are typically not needed in people who have a healthy immune system.
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Where Can My Kid Get A Booster Shot
Since only Pfizer’s COVID-19 vaccine is currently approved for anyone under 18, it’s generally only available in doctor’s offices and public health clinics, not pharmacies and other mass vaccination sites.
Call your pediatrician or local health clinic for a recommendation on where to go. Parents may also text their ZIP code to 438829 or use this vaccine finder link to find a clinic near them that has the child vaccine available.
What Are Vaccinations And Why Does Your Baby Need Them
A vaccination is a shot that contains a vaccine. A vaccine is a medicine that helps protect your baby from certain diseases.
You may wonder why your baby needs vaccinations for diseases that youve never heard of. You may not know anyone whos ever had a disease like polio or diphtheria. Many diseases that vaccinations help prevent once infected and killed many children in this country. Because of vaccinations, most people in this country dont get these diseases any more. Vaccinations help protect your baby from diseases and help prevent him from spreading diseases to others.
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What Parents Should Know About Newborn Tests And Vaccinations
Vitamin K and eye ointment and vaccinations oh my!
Your newborn likely will get all of these shortly after birth. Surprised? If so, youre not alone. Many new parents are unaware of how many tests and treatments their newborns will receive.
Before you start to panic when a doctor gives your brand new baby a shot in the thigh, learn why these medications and vaccinations are important and some of the evidence behind the recommendations. Lets take a look at what tests and shots to expect late in pregnancy, in the delivery room, and before you take your little one home.
Measles Mumps And Rubella Vaccine
Measles, mumps and rubella vaccine – given at 12 months
The MMR vaccine is a three-in-one needle that protects against measles, mumps and rubella . It should be given to children soon after their first birthday and a second dose at 4-6 years of age with the measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccine.
Immunization against measles, mumps and rubella is required by law for all children attending school in Ontario, unless exempted.
This vaccine should also be given to adults who are not protected against measles, mumps or rubella. Pregnant women who have been told that they are not protected against rubella, should receive MMR vaccine as soon as they are no longer pregnant.
What is measles?
Measles can be a serious infection. It causes high fever, cough, rash, runny nose and watery eyes. Measles lasts for one to two weeks. Ear infections or pneumonia can happen in one out of every 10 children with measles. Measles can also be complicated by encephalitis, an infection of the brain, in about one out of every 1,000 children with measles. This may cause brain damage and developmental delays. Measles can also make a pregnant woman have a miscarriage or give birth prematurely.
Measles spreads from person to person very easily and quickly. People can get measles from an infected person coughing or sneezing around them or simply talking to them.
What is mumps?
What is rubella ?
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Keeping Your Childs Vaccination Record Up To Date
Ask the doctor or nurse to give you a written record and take this record with you whenever you take your child to a doctor, a clinic or hospital. An up-to-date vaccine record is especially important if you move to a new province or territory, as vaccine schedules are not the same everywhere. Your child may miss vaccine doses if your new doctor or clinic does not know exactly which vaccines they have already received.
You can also use the CANImmunize smartphone app. CANImmunize is a digital tool for Canadians that securely stores their vaccination records and helps them get vaccinated on time. The app also provides access to information and resources about vaccination from trusted Canadian health sources, so people can make informed vaccination decisions for themselves and their families.
Texas Newborn Screening Program
Often referred to as the heelstick because blood is taken from the babys heel, these panels screen for diseases that range from common, such as sickle cell or cystic fibrosis, to much less common, such as phenylketonuria or congenital hypothyroidism. As of 2015, Texas program includes 53 diseases on its panel.
The first test is performed 24 to 48 hours after birth, and a second at one to two weeks at the pediatric care providers office. As with any screen, the goal is to find as many babies at risk as possible. When we detect these conditions early, it allows us to provide appropriate medical care such as altering the diet or providing medicine.
Its important to keep in mind that a positive screen will need to be confirmed with more specific testing.
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Measles Mumps And Rubella Vaccination
- 2-dose series at 1215 months, 46 years
- Dose 2 may be administered as early as 4 weeks after dose 1.
- Unvaccinated children and adolescents: 2-dose series at least 4 weeks apart
- The maximum age for use of MMRV is 12 years.
- Infants age 611 months: 1 dose before departure revaccinate with 2-dose series at age 1215 months and dose 2 as early as 4 weeks later.
- Unvaccinated children age 12 months or older: 2-dose series at least 4 weeks apart before departure
Rotavirus Vaccine Given At 2 And 4 Months
What is rotavirus?
Rotavirus is a common infection that causes vomiting and diarrhea in infants and children. Rotavirus is very contagious, spreading easily from children who are already infected to other infants, children and sometimes adults. Most children are infected with rotavirus at least once by five years of age. Serious but rare symptoms commonly seen in children less than two years of age include severe diarrhea, leading to hospitalization.
Rotavirus infection is a major cause of visits to health care providers and hospital stays for infants and children under five years of age in Ontario. Deaths in Ontario due to rotavirus are rare.
Some immunizations are required for children to attend school in Ontario. Please see the school immunization checklist for more information.
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Immunization Records And Statistics
Immunization records are kept by Alberta Health Services at the health zone level. If it has been more than 7 to 10 years since your last immunization, AHS may not have a copy of the record.
- In Alberta, the last childhood immunization is provided in Grade 9.
- If you have questions about your immunization records, contact Health Link at
- Contact the Immunization Records Request Office in your health zone to obtain your records.
Statistics on childhood immunization rates based on population in Alberta, are available on the Interactive Health Data Application.
What Are The Side Effects Of Vaccines
It is possible for any vaccine to cause side effects. Common side effects include a mild fever and pain or redness at the injection site. Most babies and children experience only mild side effects, if any.
Possible vaccine side effects include:
- Soreness or redness at the injection site
Serious side effects are rare and must be treated right away. Seek emergency medical care if your child develops any of the following symptoms:
- Difficulty breathing
- High fever over 105 degrees Fahrenheit
- Nonstop crying for over three hours
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Vaccines Given At Birth
Hepatitis B Vaccine is given before taking your baby home from the hospital. Hepatitis B can cause slow, persistent liver damage in a child. The virus, found in blood and body fluids, can last on a surface for up to a month. Doctors recommend this vaccine for all babies as a preventative to liver disease and cancer from the virus.
Do Vaccination Needles Hurt
Although generally quick, getting vaccinations can be painful for your child. The best way you can make it as painless as possible is to hold your child, and soothe and comfort them. Breastfeeding can also help reduce pain. You can use a number of other techniques to reduce the pain your child might experience.
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Why Do Babies Need So Many Vaccines
Dr. Maulin Soneji explores common vaccines recommended for infants between birth and 15 months and how these immunizations and will protect infants in the real world.
As a new parent, it may be overwhelming to face the many steps involved in taking care of a new babys health. One of those steps is infant immunizations. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, vaccinations are necessary for preventing infants from developing a severe illness, pain, disability, or even death from an infectious disease.
Maulin Soneji, MD, a pediatric infectious disease specialist at Loma Linda University Children’s Hospital, says with early-in-life vaccinations, physicians are trying to prevent illnesses such as meningitis, pneumonia, tetanus, and whooping cough, to name a few. Infants are most at risk for these diseases within their first year of life.
“We know that an infant doesn’t have to be out and around a ton of people to contract these illnesses,” Soneji says. “It just takes the right exposure from a parent who unknowingly picked up the bacteria from work. We’ve seen infants, especially under six months of age, who were not vaccinated against these common illnesses or were only partially vaccinated they were hospitalized with very severe illness. There have even been cases of infant mortality from these preventable conditions.
Should I Be Worried About The Increasing Number Of Vaccines Recommended For Children
No. Because of advances in science and manufacturing, it is easier than in the past to be sure that vaccines are highly pure. Vaccines represent only a minor stimulation of the infant immune system compared to the large number of potentially dangerous bacteria and viruses babies routinely encounter: starting immediately after a baby is born thousands of different bacteria begin to live on the skin and the lining of the nose, throat, and intestines. The babys immune system rapidly launches immune responses to these bacteria that prevent them from invading the blood stream.
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How Does Immunisation Work
Immunisation is a simple, safe and effective way to protect children against certain diseases. The serious health risks of these diseases are far greater than the very small risks of immunisation.
Immunisation protects children against harmful infections before they come into contact with them in the community.
It uses the bodys natural defence mechanism the immune system to build resistance to specific infections. Generally it takes about 2 weeks after vaccination for the immune system to respond fully.
Vaccination is the term used for getting a vaccine that is, getting the injection or taking an oral vaccine dose. Immunisation refers to the process of both getting the vaccine and becoming immune to the disease after vaccination.
Learn more about the difference between vaccination and immunisation.
Vaccines for babies and young children are funded under the Department of Health’s National Immunisation Program.
In Australia, babies and children are immunised against the following diseases:
The hepatitis A vaccine is free for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children living in high-risk areas .
Children aged 6 months to under 5 years can have the flu vaccine for free each year. It is available in autumn. Children aged 12 to 13 should be vaccinated against human papillomavirus through their schools.
Most vaccines recommended in the program are given by injection. Some combine several vaccines in the one injection.
Live Weakened Viral Vaccines: Mmr And Varicella
Four of the five vaccines given at this age are live, weakened viral vaccines, including measles, mumps and rubella in the MMR vaccine, and varicella, more commonly known as chickenpox. This means that immunity is the result of the vaccine virus replicating after the vaccine is given. Because the vaccine virus has been grown in the laboratory, it does not replicate as efficiently. The result is development of a robust immune response without actually being ill.
Because these vaccines rely on viral replication, the timing for their receipt has been carefully determined. Like threading a needle, public health officials have to, on one hand, protect babies before they are likely to be exposed, while on the other hand, delay vaccination until maternal antibodies are less likely to interfere with the development of immunity. This balance is one of the reasons healthcare providers were so scared during the recent measles outbreaks. They understand just how vulnerable their patients less than 1 year old are. Measles is one of if not the most contagious of infectious diseases, making it very adept at finding the non-immune among us.
Experience has also shown that people who received the chickenpox vaccine are less likely to develop shingles as adults. And if they do, their cases are less severe because the virus that is reactivating is the vaccine strain, which is less damaging.
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