What Is Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding
Infants who do not receive the vitamin K shot are at risk for developing VKDB.
VKDB can be classified according to the time of presentation after birth into early , classical and late VKDB. Early VKDB is severe, and is mainly found in infants whose mothers used certain medications during pregnancy that interfere with vitamin K metabolism, such as certain anticonvulsants or isoniazid. Classical VKDB is typically characterized by bruising or bleeding from the umbilicus. Late VKDB is the most concerning type this bleeding occurs up to 6 months of age in previously healthy infants, and between 3060% of late VKDB presents as an intracranial bleed. This life-threatening complication tends to occur in exclusively breastfed infants who have received no or inadequate vitamin K prophylaxis warning bleeds before an initial severe event are rare.
Infants who do not get the vitamin K shot at birth are at 81 times greater risk for developing VKDB than infants who do get the shot. VKDB is effectively prevented by the vitamin K shot incidence of late VKDB, the most concerning type, falls to less than 1/100,000 infants when vitamin K is given at birth.
How Do I Get Vitamin K For My Baby
During your pregnancy your doctor or midwife will talk to you about vitamin K, including the pros and cons of giving your baby vitamin K by injection or by mouth. Your doctor or midwife will then note this on your file. Your baby will receive vitamin K soon after birth by a doctor or a midwife, based on your decision.
If you have chosen to give your baby vitamin K by mouth then your baby will need to receive 2 more doses after the dose they receive at birth. The second dose can be given in hospital at the same time as your baby has their newborn screening test, or by your local doctor or healthcare worker. It is important to remember to arrange your babys third dose when they are 4 weeks old. This important final dose can also be given by your doctor or health care worker.
If you are having a home birth, be sure to discuss giving your baby vitamin K with your midwife. Homebirth midwives are required to have all essential equipment available for a planned home birth, including vitamin K injections.
Protect Babies From Life
Although the Vitamin K shot is safe and, as recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics, has been routinely given to newborns at birth since 1961, some parents refuse the shot due to myths and misperceptions about its safety. This puts babies at risk for dangerous bleeding which can lead to brain damage and even death. As a healthcare provider, you are in a unique position to debunk these myths and misperceptions. Provide reliable information to parents about the benefits of Vitamin K so that they can make the most informed choices about their childs medical care and protect them from potentially devastating health consequences.
- Talk to expectant parents about the benefits of a single Vitamin K shot after birth before they get to the delivery room.
- Encourage expectant parents to protect their newborn by making sure he or she gets the shot after birth.
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What Is The Hepatitis B Vaccine
Immunizations start at birth. The first immunization given is the hepatitis B vaccine. Listed below are some facts about hepatitis B:
Hepatitis B is a disease of the liver caused by hepatitis B virus .
Potentially, there may not be any symptoms present when first infected the likelihood of early symptoms decreases with the person’s age. If present, yellow skin or eyes, tiredness, stomachache, loss of appetite, nausea, or joint pain may occur.
The younger the person is when infected with HBV, the greater the likelihood of staying infected and having life-long liver problems, such as scarring of the liver and liver cancer.
The disease can be spread from an infected pregnant mother to her baby, through contact with the blood of an infected person, or by having sex with an infected person. It can also be spread by sharing objects, such as toothbrushes or razors.
The HBV vaccine will prevent this disease. This vaccine is given to nearly all newborns. Additional doses are given before age 18 months. If newborns are exposed to HBV before, during, or after birth, both the vaccine and a special HBV immune globulin dose are given within 12 hours of birth. The CDC recommends that all babies complete the HBV vaccine series between age 6 months and 18 months to be fully protected against HBV infection. This full series gives long-term protection against HBV and booster shots are typically not needed in people who have a healthy immune system.
Keep A Record Of Immunizations
It is important that you keep track of your child’s immunizations. The use of the Lifetime Health Record is one way of keeping a record. Your doctor should be reporting all vaccines given to the Citywide Immunization Registry . It’s important to bring your child’s immunization record with you every time you take your child to the doctor or clinic. That’s how you and the doctor will know exactly which immunizations your child has had and how many more your child will need.
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Is Your Baby Protected From Vaccine
Your baby will be given a handful of vaccines and supplements in the first months of life. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the carefully-planned childhood vaccine schedule. Following the schedule in the coming months and years will put your infant on track for life-long immunity to dangerous diseases.
The vaccines recommended for your young baby are closely monitored by the CDC and the Food and Drug Administration for safety and effectiveness. Here are the vaccines that your baby will receive from birth through two months.
How Is Vitamin K Given
Vitamin K is usually given as a single injection in your babys leg muscle shortly after birth. If you prefer that your baby does not get an injection, they can have liquid vitamin K drops into their mouth. It is important to note that oral vitamin K drops are not absorbed as well by the body than injected vitamin K, so 3 doses of oral vitamin K are needed. The first dose is given at birth, the second at 3 to 5 days of age and the third when they are 4 weeks old.
Vitamin K injections are preferred over the oral drops for all babies. Some babies arent able to have oral vitamin K, such as if the mother was taking certain medications while pregnant, or if your baby is premature, unwell, taking antibiotics or has diarrhoea.
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When Should Vitamin K Be Given To Newborns
All newborns receive a vitamin K shot within the first six hours of birth. And you wont have to ask for it: Getting the vitamin K shot is a standard practice that the American Academy of Pediatrics first started recommending for all newborns in 1961.
Dont wait to see if your baby needs a vitamin K injection. All infants even those who are otherwise the picture of health can develop VKDB. Because bleeding occurs internally, often in the brain or intestines, you may not know its happening until severe complications have occurred.
Why Do Newborns Need A Vitamin K Shot
I’m pregnant with my first child, and my OB told me that my baby will get a shot of vitamin K right away. Is this really necessary? Nina
Yes, health experts recommend that all newborns get a dose of vitamin K at birth. Babies aren’t born with enough of this important vitamin, which is needed for blood to clot normally.
Babies who don’t get vitamin K at birth are at risk for a potentially fatal bleeding disorder called vitamin K deficient bleeding . VKDB can cause bruising or bleeding in nearly every organ of the body. Almost half of VKDB cases involve bleeding in the brain and brain damage.
Babies are at risk for VKDB for the first 6 months of life. That’s because most of the vitamin K the body makes comes from the foods we eat and the healthy bacteria in our intestines. Until they start eating solid food at about 6 months of age, babies don’t have enough naturally produced vitamin K. And nursing moms don’t pass enough vitamin K in their breast milk to protect their babies from VKDB.
Why, then, do some parents delay or refuse their newborn’s vitamin K injection? A study in the early 1990s suggested a link between the vitamin K shot and childhood cancer. Many studies since then have found no connection between vitamin K and cancer. But that misinformation is still readily available online. As a result, some families are delaying or skipping the shot, or looking for other ways for their infants to receive vitamin K.
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Babies Who Should Not Have The 6
Most babies can have the 6-in-1 vaccine, but there are a few that should not, for example, those who:
- are allergic to the vaccine
- have a high temperature at the time of the vaccination appointment wait until they’ve recovered
- have a neurological problem thats getting worse, including poorly controlled epilepsy wait until theyve been seen by a specialist
The 6-in-1 vaccine should not be given to babies who have had a severe allergic reaction to a previous dose of the vaccine, or a reaction to any part of the vaccine that may be present in trace amounts, such as neomycin, streptomycin or polymixin B.
There’s no need to postpone vaccination if your baby has a minor illness, such as a cough or a cold with no temperature.
If your baby has a history of fits or has had a fit within 72 hours of a previous dose of the vaccine, speak to your GP surgery, nurse or health visitor for advice.
What Vaccinations Does Your Baby Need
In the first 2 years of life, your baby gets several vaccinations to help protect them from diseases. Our vaccination schedule shows each vaccination your baby gets up to 6 years. It shows how many doses your baby gets of each vaccine and when. Its based on the schedule from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . The CDC has done a lot of research to make sure vaccination schedules are safe for children.
This is a typical vaccination schedule through age 6. Your child’s health care provider may use a different one. All children need vaccinations for their own health and so they don’t spread infection to others. Doses are listed by month. If a dose covers more than 1 month on the schedule, ask your baby’s provider when your baby gets that dose.
If your baby’s vaccinations were delayed because of COVID-19, contact their health care provider as soon as possible to get back on schedule.
Notes:Hib: Ask your provider if your baby needs a dose at 6 months.RV: Ask your provider if your baby needs a 3rd dose.Flu: Children age 6 months through 8 years of age need two doses of the flu vaccine, if they are getting the flu vaccine for the first time. The two doses need to be 4 weeks apart.MMR: If you will be traveling out of the country, ask your provider if your baby needs to get the MMR vaccine before your trip.Hep A: If you will be traveling out of the country, ask your provider if your baby needs to get the Hep A vaccine before your trip.
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What Might Happen If I Skip The Vitamin K Shot
Today, many parents strive to fully understand the potential consequences of any vaccine given to their baby, so it’s understandable to have some hesitancy about shots. But refusing the vitamin K shot for your baby is a decision that should be weighed very heavily, says Dr. Diamond. “VKDB can happen any time and is impossible to predict. It can happen suddenly and is impossible to cure, even if vitamin K is given when it happens. It can lead to permanent brain damage and death.”
Dr. Loyal agrees, saying, “Parents considering opting out of the vitamin K injection should have a discussion with their pediatrician, ideally prior to delivery, to make an informed decision.”
Here are some factors to consider when deciding whether or not to give your infant the vitamin K shot:
- Some U.S. states have legislation mandating the administration of the vitamin K injection.
- Most physicians performing a procedure, such as a circumcision, require the newborn to have received the vitamin K injection.
- Oral Vitamin K supplements do not work as well as the injection in preventing VKDB
Children In Licensed Daycare Centres
If you want your child to attend daycare, and decide not to vaccinate them due to medical, religious or philosophical reasons, you will need to give your daycare a valid written exemption. If the disease appears in your childs daycare centre, your child may have to stay out of daycare until the disease is no longer present.
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Newborn Screenings: What To Expect In Hospital Right After Birth
For those of you who are expecting new babies, congratulations! In addition to getting to know your newborn and learning to care for her, there are many things that happen in the hospital after a baby is born that you should be aware of.
It may seem like a lot of poking and prodding around your perfect new baby, but each test is done for a very specific and important reason. All are designed to make sure your baby is healthy and has the best start in life.
You can talk to your babys future health care provider about these topics to learn more.
Which Vaccines Do You Recommend During Pregnancy
I recommend two vaccines for pregnant parents: The first is the flu vaccine, and the second is pertussis .
The flu vaccine should be given to expecting parents as soon possible .
The antibodies generated by the flu shot will also circulate to the baby during pregnancy and protect the baby in early life. This is really important since the baby cant get the flu shot before they are 6 months old, and we dont have very effective treatments to care for those babies who become very ill with the flu.
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Immunizations Essential For Your Newborn’s Health
Hi, Im Dr. Emily Bendlin, a pediatrician at Methodist Physicians Clinic Hawthorne Court. I get to work with families, kids and babies every single day.
I recently had my first baby isnt he cute!!!!
When he was delivered at Methodist Womens Hospital a few months ago, right after delivery, I was given the option of three important medications I knew were essential to his health.
Today, I wanted to talk to you about those medications, and just why we here at Methodist recommend that you consider them for your child.
The first is a Vitamin K injection.
All babies are born with very low levels of Vitamin K, which is essential in blood clotting. While babies can produce some Vitamin K, its simply not enough.
Giving newborns injectable Vitamin K at birth immediately gives them enough Vitamin K to prevent their risk of a problem called Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding or VKDB. VKDB is a clotting disorder that causes spontaneous bleeding. It is often internal and can cause brain damage or even death.
A Vitamin K injection at birth will prevent VKDB for six months when they are old enough to eat foods which can provide enough daily Vitamin K to prevent this spontaneous bleeding.
Now, some parents ask about oral Vitamin K medication instead of an injection. There is an oral option, but your baby will need more than one dose. Talk with the hospital and your childs health care provider about options for oral vitamin K.
Do Vaccinations Have Risks Or Side Effects
Like any medicine, vaccinations can cause side effects. Most of the time, side effects from vaccinations are mild, go away on their own and last only a few days. Most side effects are a good sign that your babys immune system is building up protection against the disease they were vaccinated against. Your babys immune system helps protect them from infection.
Ask your babys provider about possible side effects of vaccinations, including:
- Low fever
- Redness, swelling or soreness at the spot where your baby got the shot
Severe allergic reactions to vaccines are rare. An allergic reaction is a reaction to something that enters your body. About 1 in 1 million doses of vaccines causes a severe allergic reaction. A severe allergic reaction happens within minutes or a few hours of the vaccination. If your baby has signs of a severe allergic reaction or a reaction that you think is an emergency, call 911. Signs of a severe allergic reaction include:
- Breathing problems
- Swelling of the throat and face
- Hives. These are red bumps on your skin that sometimes itch.
- Fever, sleepiness and not wanting to eat
- Weakness, dizziness and fast heartbeat
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Are There Any Reasons Not To Vaccinate My Child Especially During The Covid
Yes. There are times when some children should not get certain vaccines or they should wait. For example, if your child has any severe, life-threatening allergies, theyve had an allergic reaction after a previous dose of vaccines, or theyre moderately or severely ill, their doctor may recommend not getting or delaying a specific vaccination.
When it comes to the COVID-19 pandemic, you dont need to delay the immunizations or care your child needs unless you, your child or someone in your household is experiencing COVID-19 symptoms.
While staying on track with all immunizations is important, making sure your child has their annual flu shot will be especially important this year. As the pandemic continues, so too will the high amounts of time we spend at home and indoors where flu viruses can thrive during cold and dry winter weather. Flu shots are typically available starting in late August, and this year HealthPartners and Park Nicollet are offering both shot and FluMist options.