What Happens In Pyloric Stenosis
Food and other stomach contents pass through the pylorus, the lower part of the stomach, to enter the small intestine. Pyloric stenosis is a narrowing of the pylorus. When a baby has pyloric stenosis, this narrowing of the pyloric channel prevents food from emptying out of the stomach.
Pyloric stenosis is a type of gastric outlet obstruction, which means a blockage from the stomach to the intestines.
Pyloric stenosis affects about 3 out of 1,000 babies in the United States. It’s more likely to affect firstborn male infants and also runs in families if a parent had pyloric stenosis, then a baby has up to a 20% risk of developing it. Most infants who have it develop symptoms 3 to 5 weeks after birth.
Do Babies Poop In The Womb
Babies pee a lot in the womb, but they usually dont poop until after birth.
During pregnancy, a sticky greenish-black substance known as meconium starts to build up in your babys intestine. This is babys first poop. Instead of food, its made up of the stuff your baby collected in his intestines while in utero , which is why it looks drastically different from the baby poop yet to come.
Youll usually see meconium in your baby’s first diapers, but occasionally it comes out while a baby is still in utero. If that happens, theres a risk that he could breathe in some amniotic fluid stained with meconium which could irritate his lungs or lead to serious illness.
So let your doctor or midwife know right away if youre leaking green or brownish amniotic fluid. Your practitioner may decide to speed up delivery and evaluate your baby as soon as he arrives.
Anatomy Of The Digestive Tract
Like many other parts of the human body, the GI tract is not fully mature at birth. Certain enzymes and differences in anatomy mean that digestion is achieved in a slightly different way in newborns, but their bodies are nonetheless well-equipped to break food down into components ready for absorption.
Let’s begin by looking at the anatomy of the digestive tract and see what happens from the moment food enters your baby’s mouth until it ends up in their diaper. Each section of the GI tract has a specialized structure that allows it to perform distinct roles in the transport and digestion of nutrients.
The GI tract is essentially a long, folded tube that stretches from the mouth to the anus. It has an amazingly large surface area, even larger than that of the skin.
This surface area is due mostly to the villi and microvilli that cover the small and large intestine. Once digestion is complete, nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream, liver, and other destinations through the thousands of square centimeters of tissue provided by the villi and microvilli.
You May Like: How To Heal Diaper Rash In Newborn
Adjust Your Feeding Position
Babies who seem to spit up often could benefit from positioning that utilizes gravity to help keep the milk down. Instead of holding your baby horizontally across your body, use more of an upright position, like the football hold or on top of your body while you are reclining. Keeping baby upright for a half an hour after a feeding may also help. If your baby is gulping and choking when your milk lets down, he may be taking in a good amount of air. Upright positioning, along with frequent burping, may help alleviate his discomfort.
How Is Pyloric Stenosis Treated
When an infant is diagnosed with pyloric stenosis, either by ultrasound or barium swallow, the baby will be admitted to the hospital and prepared for surgery. Any dehydration or electrolyte problems in the blood will be corrected with intravenous fluids, usually within 24 hours.
A surgical procedure called pyloromyotomy, which involves cutting through the thickened muscles of the pylorus, will relieve the blockage. The pylorus is examined through a very small incision, and the muscles that are overgrown and thickened are spread and relaxed.
The surgery can also be done through laparoscopy. This is a technique that uses a tiny scope placed in an incision in the belly button, allowing the doctor to see the area of the pylorus. Using other small instruments placed in nearby incisions, the doctor can complete the surgery.
Most babies return to normal feedings fairly quickly, usually 3 to 4 hours after the surgery. Because of swelling at the surgery site, a baby may still vomit small amounts for a day or so. If there are no complications, most babies who have had pyloromyotomy can return to a normal feeding schedule and go home within 24 to 48 hours of the surgery.
If you’re breastfeeding, you might worry about continuing while your baby is hospitalized. The hospital staff should be able to provide a breast pump and help you use it so that you can continue to express milk until your baby can feed regularly.
Recommended Reading: What To Give Newborn For Diarrhea
Waiting On Solid Foods
Now that you know your little ones digestive system is still taking shape, its easier to understand why we need to wait to introduce solid foods. If your baby starts eating them too early, she wont be able to properly digest them.
The benchmark most pediatricians and parents follow is from the American Academy of Pediatrics and recommends waiting until your baby is between 4 and 6 months to introduce solid foods.
What Causes Pyloric Stenosis
It’s thought that babies who develop pyloric stenosis are not born with it, but have progressive thickening of the pylorus after birth. A baby will start to show symptoms when the pylorus is so thick that the stomach can’t empty properly.
The cause of this thickening isn’t clear. It might be a combination of several things for example, use of erythromycin in babies in the first 2 weeks of life or antibiotics given to moms at the end of pregnancy or during breastfeeding can be associated with pyloric stenosis.
Don’t Miss: How To Make Your Newborn Fall Asleep
The Developing Digestive System
Birth constitutes a dramatic switch in the supply of nutrients from the placenta to the gut and, with the first feeding, the exposure of the gastrointestinal system to something different from amniotic fluid. This transition generates the necessity to digest macronutrients prior to their absorption and makes the gut, with its large, folded surface, our biggest interface to the outside world. In essence, very little is known about the complex development of digestive functions in human newborns. This is not surprising, since the clinical investigation of digestive processes frequently requires invasive procedures, such as the usage of nasogastric and nasoduodenal tubes or the drawing of blood samples. Their invasiveness limits the applicability of such procedures in healthy term infants. Preterm infants are usually fed via a gastric tube that also allows the collection of samples. As a result, lipid digestion has, to the best of our knowledge, only been functionally investigated in preterm infants, but not term infants .
When Do Babies Start Absorbing Nutrients From The Mother
Babies start absorbing nutrients from their mothers about three to five days after conception. Thats when the fertilized egg meets its energy needs with nutrients secreted from Moms endometrium .
Soon after implantation, which usually happens about eight to nine days after conception, the embryo forms a yolk sac. The yolk sac provides critical nutrition and gas exchange between mom and baby throughout most of the first trimester, until the placenta starts to take over at around week 10 of pregnancy.
That means that from the beginning, your baby is getting all his nutrition from you. His own digestive system wont take over until hes born and starts consuming breast milk or formula.
In other words, what you eat throughout your pregnancy matters. So be sure to take your prenatal vitamin daily and maintain a well-rounded pregnancy diet. That means consuming plenty of foods that are rich in:
- Folate , to ensure the development of healthy new cells and to help prevent some birth defects
- Omega-3 , for healthy brain and eye development
- Vitamin D to help with healthy bones, teeth, eyes and skin
- Calcium to ensure strong bones and teeth as well as a tip-top heart, muscles and nerves
Don’t Miss: How To Apply For Social Security For A Newborn
Tips To Care For Your Childs Digestive Health
Colic, diarrhoea, spitting up, tummy pain, and other digestive problems are very common during the first few months after the birth of your child. But there is no need to worry as these are very common issues that most babies may face due to an immature digestive system. However, here we have some tips that may help you to take care of your babys digestive health.
How A Babys Digestive System Works For Parents
What should a baby eat? How much and how often? When can you give a baby solids?
These are just some of the questions a parent thinks about when caring for an infant. Its very important that babies receive adequate nutrition to grow and develop, but it can be hard to know how to feed them. It helps to understand whats going on inside their digestive systems.
Don’t Miss: How Many Onesies Does A Newborn Need
Have You Heard That Foods Should Be Introduced Into The Infant Diet Between 4 And 6 Months To Reduce The Risk Of Developing Allergy Celiac Disease Or Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
The current evidence has been reviewed by several authorities, and the conclusion was that there is insufficient evidence to support the introduction of gluten into the infant diet before 6 months.
- Kramer MS, Kakuma R. Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 8. Art. No.: CD003517. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003517.pub2.Although infants should still be managed individually so that insufficient growth or other adverse outcomes are not ignored and appropriate interventions are provided, the available evidence demonstrates no apparent risks in recommending, as a general policy, exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life in both developing and developed-country settings.
Is Baby Ready For Solid Foods
Image courtesy of imagerymajestic / FreeDigitalPhotos.net
Health experts and breastfeeding experts agree that its best to wait until your baby is around six months old before offering any food other than breastmilk. There has been a large amount of research on this, and most health organizations have updated their recommendations to agree with current research. Unfortunately, many health care providers and written materials are not up to date in what they are advising parents.
Following are just a few of the organizations that recommend that all babies be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months of life :
Most babies will become developmentally and physiologically ready to eat solid foods between 6 and 8 months of age.
Recommended Reading: What Causes Breathing Problems In Newborn Babies
In Vitro Models Mimic Digestive Physiology
Two cardinal types of in vitro modelsstatic and dynamiccan be distinguished, with a broad range of intermediates that can be further divided according to their approach. In static models, the addition of digestive juices occurs in one bolus. The mixing of chyme and digestive juices usually occurs in a single compartment by stirring. More realistic simulations of digestion processes are obtained in dynamic models, in which the secretion of digestive juices is gradual. In some dynamic models, peristaltic movement can also be simulated. In advanced models, various physiological units are combined together in consecutive order, e.g., the stomach, the small intestine, and the colon. Advanced dynamic models may also remove products of digestion from the intestinal lumen to simulate absorption and prevent product inhibition of the enzymes.
Lipid digestion is most often measured by means of chemical quantification of FFAs by titration or by chromatography. The measurement of TAG digestion products by, e.g., mass spectroscopy or in situ densitometric analysis yields more detailed insights . Radiolabeled substrates are also used to improve the identification of products formed .
Lipid digestion models have been frequently used to investigate, for example, the interaction of oral drugs with foods, digestion of lipid-based drug delivery systems, and controlled digestion of emulsion-based systems in the research of satiety .
How To Support Your Babys Digestive Learning Curve
The changes in the digestive system are rapid. Parents could take a few measures to support these developments.
- Introduce one food at a time with easy-to-digest foods introduced first. Soft fruits such as apple, pureed meat, poultry, beans, and iron-fortified cereals are some options to try .
- As you add new food, wait for three to five days, and watch if the food is causing any discomfort to the baby. This way, you can identify a potential allergen.
- Begin feeding solids in cooked, mashed, or pureed form. As the baby grows and develops motor skills, you may transit to soft cooked food pieces by about nine months
- Try to add a variety of foods to your babys diet right from the start so that they may reap the benefits of these foods in the long run.
- Adjust the quantity of solid food to account for the consumption of breast milk or formula. Breast milk takes approximately an hour and a half to digest, while formula may take four to five hours.
Recommended Reading: What To Buy For Newborn
Sample Processing For Metaproteomic Analysis
Extraction of proteins from feces was performed mechanically by repeated bead beating as described previously ,. Gastric aspirates were thawed on ice, centrifuged and pellet was removed . pH of the supernatant was determined and samples were centrifuged to remove debris . Fecal and gastric proteins were quantified using Qubit Protein Assay Kit on a Qubit 2.0 fluorometer and diluted in PBS to obtain a 3 g/l and 5 g/l concentration, respectively. In gel digestion procedures, database construction, analysis of MS/MS spectra and protein grouping with MaxQuant 126.96.36.199 were performed as previously described. In the current study, no additional mapping of initial search results was performed to functionally classify proteins.
Introduce Solid Foods Gradually
You may give solid foods to your baby once he turns six months. However, refrain from adding too many foods at the same time. Begin by slowly introducing one food at a time and the new food should be added after a gap of four to five days. Monitor how your babys digestive system responds to it. Bananas, broccoli, apples and cereals like rice, ragi and suji are some of the food items that you may begin with. The addition of wheat should be delayed and it can be started around eight months or after.
Read Also: Should I Buy Newborn Clothes